Self-Efficacy Practice in Oral Presentation Through Self- Reflection among Pre-Service Teachers in Institute of Teacher Education

South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
Year: 2021 (June), Volume: (2), Issue. (3)
First page: (189) Last page: (202)
Online ISSN: 2582-7065
doi:10.48165/sajssh.2021.2312

Self-Efficacy Practice in Oral Presentation Through Self- Reflection among Pre-Service Teachers in Institute of Teacher Education

Mimi Rita @ Aishah Tajuddin1, Aizan Yaacob2 and Faizahani Ab. Rahman3
1,2,3School of Education, Universiti Utara Malaysia

Corresponding Author: Mimi Rita @ Aishah Tajuddin,
E-mail: aishah.tajuddin@gmail.com

Online Published:
3rd June 2021

Received:
11th January 2021

Accepted:
18th May 2021

How to cite the Article

Tajuddin, M. R. @ A., Yaacob, A., & Rahman, F. Ab. (2021). Self-Efficacy Practice in Oral Presentation Through Self- Reflection among Pre-Service Teachers in Institute of Teacher Education. South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 02(03), 189–202. https://doi.org/10.48165/sajssh.2021.2312 Cite
Tajuddin, Mimi Rita @. Aishah, et al. “Self-Efficacy Practice in Oral Presentation Through Self- Reflection among Pre-Service Teachers in Institute of Teacher Education.” South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, vol. 02, no. 03, 2021, pp. 189–202, http://doi.org/10.48165/sajssh.2021.2312. Cite
1.
Tajuddin MR@ A, Yaacob A, Rahman FAb. Self-Efficacy Practice in Oral Presentation Through Self- Reflection among Pre-Service Teachers in Institute of Teacher Education. SAJSSH. 2021;02(03):189‑202. DOI: 10.48165/sajssh.2021.2312 Cite
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ABSTRACT

Self-efficacy is the driving force that makes people pursue a goal and overcome obstacles. Through numerous studies, students with a high sense of efficacy have the capacity to accept more challenging tasks, have higher abilities to organize their time, increase persistence in the face of obstacles, and exhibit lower anxiety levels. In this study, pre-service teachers have oral presentation anxiety, which overcomes their feelings by practicing self-efficacy such as intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, self-reflectiveness and self-enhancement through self-reflections after oral presentations. Data for this study were obtained through self-reflection and interviews administered to 13 pre-service teachers at an Institute of Teacher Education to investigate their self-efficacy practices to overcome oral performance anxiety in presenting the topics and analyzed thematically. Self-reflection is obtained through Schoology Learning Management System (LMS), written self-reflection and interviews. The pre-service teachers practiced self-efficacy that is self-enhancement – therefore, this information contributes to the new knowledge following earlier research. The findings revealed that pre-service teachers’ self-reflection depicted their self-efficacy practice such as intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, self-reflectiveness and self-enhancement. The study’s practical implications show that self-reflection has a positive impact on the pre-service teachers’ oral presentation skills. This significantly contributes to turning the pre-service teachers into independent, life-long learners.  

KEYWORDS

Self-efficacy, pre-service teachers, self-reflection, second language learning, oral performance anxiety.

INTRODUCTION

For nearly 40 years, oral presentation anxiety and self-efficacy have become long-standing issues in the second language (L2) learning; for instance, the study by Horwitz et al. (1986) and Bandura (1986) proven as the evidence. Prominent researchers have studied self-efficacy for decades and found that self-efficacy is an essential factor in human agency, as embedded in self-reflective and self-regulative mechanisms (Bandura, 1999). The literature outlines the practice of self-efficacy in human agency, for example, through intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness and self-reflectiveness (Bandura, 2006). However, it is argued that people are often insensitive to situational signs and unaffected by the significances of their actions. They undergo specific actions rather than making a choice and regulating their actions. Wyatt (2015) defines self-efficacy as a belief in their competency to support knowledge in several tasks and in context-specific, intellectual, social and emotional ways. Similarly, Bandura (1997) indicates that self-efficacy is the belief in one’s capabilities to successfully carry out, establish, and complete a task (Bandura, 1997).

The problem is that the pre-service teachers faced oral communication anxiety and lack of self-efficacy in the Malaysian context and globally. In the global context, communication apprehension was studied broadly by McCroskey et al. (2014), who have proven that communication apprehension impedes oral presentation. As this is a part of more extensive research exploring the pre-service teachers’ oral communication anxiety and self-efficacy practices in the oral presentations through self-reflections, only the findings on the participants’ self-efficacy practices will be presented in this paper.

This paper attempts to answer the following research question:

How do the pre-service teachers practice self-efficacy in the oral presentations through self-reflection?

LITERATURE REVIEW

The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) theory is people with higher ability or understanding than the learners regarding a particular task, practice, or strategy. The MKO is usually an instructor, lecturer, or older adult, but the MKO could also be their peers (Vygotsky, 1978; Verenikina, 2010). The MKO theory has been used in various educational and psychological studies (Siti Salina Mustakim et al., 2014; Yang, 2015). Studies from multiple language skills and different programs development illustrate the credibility of MKO. MKO can assist the learners’ oral presentation difficulties by getting insightful thoughts and supports. The justification for choosing the MKO theory is that the knowledge by the instructor and the learners’ peers can aid them to know their ability in oral presentations. Recently, the establishment of teacher and students’ orientation mutually exchange knowledge can be discovered in MKO theory.

Besides, Bandura (1988) argues that students who believe they can exercise control over potential fears do not engage in apprehensive thinking and are not worried. However, those who believe they cannot manage threatening events might experience anxiety arousal. Therefore, the exercise of control over anxiety arousal involves the development of behavioural managing efficacy and efficacy in controlling dysfunctional apprehensive cognitions. It is not fearsome cognitions per se but the perceived self-inefficacy to shut them off that is the primary source of anxiety arousal. Analyses of the causal structure of self-protective behaviour show that anxiety arousal and avoidant behaviour are mainly co-effects of perceived handling with inefficacy.  

Later, Bandura (2006) introduced four core properties in the human agency of the social cognitive theory, namely intentionality, forethoughts, self-reactiveness and self-reflectiveness. The first core property in the human agency is intentionality, in which people practice intentions that include action plans and strategies for realizing their intentions. The second property of human agency is forethought, which includes the progressive extension of the agency. Forethought consists of more than future-directed plans; people set themselves aims, and the actions to guide their determinations and the third human agency property is self-reactiveness. For instance, the people are not only planners but also forethinkers. The fourth core property in a human agency is self-reflectiveness. Bandura (2006) opined that the beliefs of thinking pessimistically or optimistically influence self-enhancing or self-hindering. Agentic property can be found in learners’ self-reflection. In the self-reflections on oral presentation, there are intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness agentic property (Bandura, 1999, 2001, 2006). Another self-efficacy practice is self-enhancement, which added to the earlier research by Bandura (2006). It is defined as the motive to preserve, pursue, or amplify the positivity of one’s self-protection or self-views as the motive to avoid, restore, or lessen the negativity of one’s self-views (Sedikides & Alicke, 2018). ‘Self-Enhancement’ is associated with ‘improvement’ and ‘self-control’, which is a property of the self-efficacy practiced by the learners when performing oral presentations. Like qualitative research by Wyatt (2015), related studies on self-efficacy address self-efficacy practice issues by being centred on an agent-means standpoint but reflecting more on lecturers’ concerns for significances. Wyatt (2015) defined teacher self-efficacy as a belief in their competency to support knowledge in several tasks and context-specific, intellectual, social and emotional ways. Meanwhile, social self-efficacy can be defined as the extent of confidence in one’s ability to conduct the social interactions needed to establish and sustain interpersonal relations (ErÖZkan, 2014). A student may have a positive self-concept if he believes he is smart, but the student’s self-efficacy may refer to how strongly he believes he can earn a high grade in a specific class (Reed, Kirschner, & Jolles, 2015). Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s ability to influence events that affect one’s life and control over how those events are experienced (Bandura, 2006; Iqbal, Don & Kasa, 2019). Bandura (2006) studied self-efficacy in human agency, and earlier Bandura (1986) opined that the capability to make judgements upon oneself and the meta-cognitive ability to reflect upon one’s actions are the most core human properties of the agency. Hence, the definition of self-efficacy in the human agency is the belief in one’s competencies and positive self-concept.

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

One of the most frequently used qualitative research methodologies is a case study (Yazan, 2015). This study uses a qualitative case study research design to describe the pre-service teachers’ oral presentation anxiety and self-efficacy practice through self-reflection. A case study is a design of inquiry found on many grounds, in which the researcher develops an in-depth analysis of a case, often an activity, of one or more individuals. Cases are bounded by time and activity, and researchers collect detailed information using various data collection procedures over a sustained period of time (De Smet, Mettewie, Galand, Hiligsmann, & Van Mensel, 2018). In educational research, the researcher uses a qualitative research design in order to be more practical or empirical in classroom situations (Creswell, 2012). The qualitative research design enables to investigate the pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy practice through self-reflection. The research design of this study is a qualitative case study, in which it discovers the experiences of individuals in self-reflection about the oral presentation in English as a second language. The self-reflection was conducted multiple times for two semesters to enhance trustworthiness in a qualitative study by the pre-service teachers after the oral presentation.

3. 2 Participants

The 13 participants were selected from Teaching English as a Second Language program, based on purposive sampling. They were selected from an Institute of Teacher Education consisted of 10 females and 3 males for the case study.

3.3 Data Collection Method

Two stages of data collection were conducted through self-reflection and interviews: the first stage and second stage adapted the Mentor and ‘learner’ Model by Tarrant (2013).  Initially, oral presentations were given by TESL pre-service teachers, and they recorded their self-reflections online using Schoology LMS. Two of the 13 went on to the second stage of oral presentations, and they submitted written self-reflection. Interview sessions were also recorded after the second stage of oral presentations.

3.4 Methods of Data Analysis

Six phases of thematic analysis consisted of data familiarizing, initial codes generating, themes searching, potential themes reviewing, themes defining, and naming, and the last phase is report producing outlined by Braun and Clarke (2012, 2013). The first phase of analysis is data familiarisation which is common to all forms of qualitative analysis. This phase includes engaging in the data by analyzing and reading textual data. Phase 2 begins the analysis of the data through coding systematically. The building blocks of analysis are codes that identify and provide a label of the data that is potentially relevant to the research question (Braun & Clarke, 2013; Maguire & Delahunt, 2017). Phase 3, the analysis starts to shift from codes to themes. A theme is something important about the data concerning the research question and represents some level of patterned from the response, for instance, from the interview questions or meaning within the data set. Phase 4 includes a recursive procedure whereby the themes developed are reviewed in relation to the coded data and whole data set. This phase is referred to as fundamental about quality checking. Phase 5, defining themes, needs to state what is precise and unique about each theme. The final phase of analysis is the production of a report done thoroughly with the writing and analysis intertwined together in qualitative research, from informal writing of notes and memos to the more formal processes of analysis and report writing.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

  1. Analysis of Self-Efficacy Practice through Self-Reflection

The analysis of self-efficacy through self-reflection was conducted to express their self-efficacy practice when they have to present the English language in the classroom. The pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy is essential because it develops self-enhancement. Bandura (2001) stated that optimistic people think in self-enhancing ways compared to pessimistic people who think in ways that are self-hindering. The data from the two participants who reflected on both oral presentations, Ina and Mila, will be discussed in this paper. Below is the overview of the findings.

Table 1. Overview of the pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy practice findings.

pseudonymsintentionalityforethoughtself-
reactivenes
self-
reactivenes
self-
enhancemen
Intention to Overcome AnxietyIntention to Build
Confidence
Intention to Present More Enjoyable TopicsStay PositiveMake a JokePracticePrepareAvoid MistakesMoral SupportConfidenceSelf-ControlImprovement
Azura√√√√√√√√√
Ina√√√√√√√√√√√√√√
Auni
Mila√√√√√√√√√√√√√
Laila√√
Amy√√√√√√
Sakinah√√
Fatimah 
Hajar√√√√
Maya√√
Tony
rahim√√√√√√
alim√√√√√√√√√√

TOTAL students7388175368311
sub-TOTAL1231191174817316
TOTAL occurences2610183919

Based on Table 1, initially, 14 students took part in the study. However, one student withdrew from the study. The themes overview of the pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy practice indicated that it is clear that students practiced self-reflectiveness with 39 occurrences, intentionality with 26 occurrences, self-enhancement (19 occurrences), self-reactiveness (18 occurrences) and forethought (10 occurrences). As indicated in Table 1, ‘moral support’ under the self-reflectiveness theme had the most occurrences, that is 18 occurrences by 6 students in their self-reflections followed by ‘confidence’ in the same theme with 17 occurrences by 8 students and ‘Avoid mistakes’ had 4 occurrences by three students.  In relation to ‘intentionality’, ‘intention to build confidence’ under the intentionality theme had 3 occurrences, ‘intention to overcome anxiety’ under intentionality theme had 12 occurrences by seven students and ‘intention to present more enjoyable topics’ had 11 occurrences under the intentionality theme by 8 students.

In relation to self-enhancement, ‘self-control’ under self-enhancement had 3 occurrences by three students, and ‘improvement’ had 16 occurrences under the self-enhancement theme by eleven students. In other words, they revealed that they improved themselves and were in control of themselves. The students were also found to be self-reactive. As shown in Table 1, ‘prepare’ under self-reactiveness had 13 occurrences by eight students, and ‘practice’ had 11 occurrences for self-reactiveness by seven students. ‘Stay positive’ under the forethought theme had 10 occurrences by nine students. Finally, the students had the forethought to stay positive with 9 occurrences. The following sections illustrate the responses from two female pre-service teachers selected: Ina and Mila.    

2. Intentionality

Bandura (2006) states that the first core property of human agency is intentionality. Pre-service teachers develop intentions that include strategies and action plans for realizing their intentions. Most pre-service teachers’ oral presentations involve a participating audience of at least their peers or perhaps others. Below is the evidence of the intentionality practice by the pre-service teachers.  

2.1 Intention to Overcome Anxiety

The first intentionality exercise in oral presentations is the intention to overcome anxiety. Overcoming anxiety is an expectation in the pre-service teachers’ plan of action in order for them to present effectively during their oral presentations. Ina, in her written self-reflection, mentioned that there are many ways to overcome anxiety. Ina felt that it was essential to know what she was afraid of. She revealed that she intended to list down her sources of fear. In Ina’s self-reflection, she also mentioned her intention to reduce the time it took to overcome her anxiety.

I hope in future I can reduce the time for me to overcome anxiety. I need time to overcome my anxiety. (Ina: Written Self-Reflection)

Mila, in her self-reflection on the intention to overcome anxiety, had a different approach than the other pre-service teachers. She intended to google on the internet, on ways to overcome her fear. 

I can google on the internet on how to overcome my nervousness. (Mila: Written Self-Reflection)

Both, Ina and Mila had listed various ways of developing the intention to overcome their anxiety in oral presentations.

2.2 Intention to Build Confidence

The second intentionality exercise in oral presentations is the plan of action to build confidence. Ina mentioned in her written self-reflection that she needed to boost her confidence by practicing speaking more in public. She intended to watch the other pre-service teachers, especially those who made excellent and enjoyable presentations.

To boost my confidence level, I will have more practices speaking in public so that I can adapt myself to speak in front of many people. Furthermore, to make my presentation attractive and interesting, I will watch others especially ones who present excellently during oral presentations to see how they perform, how they attract the audience and how they make the oral presentation enjoyable. (Ina: Written Self-Reflection)

She claimed that the practice would help her to boost her confidence level in speaking English in public. She could adapt herself to speak in front of the audience. She needed to imitate her peers. This is proven by More Knowledgeable Others (MKO) theory by Vygotsky (1978). MKO has been used widely in educational studies to solve problems (Siti Salina Mustakim et al., 2014; Yang, 2015)

2.3 Intention to Present More Enjoyable Topics

The third intentionality exercise in oral presentations is the intention to present a more enjoyable topic. Choosing and presenting a more enjoyable topic in the oral presentation is an expectation of the pre-service teachers’ plan. In their self-reflection and interviews, Ina referred to her intention to present a more enjoyable topic that would be much lighter and easier for them. Mila said that the topic was not so heavy, as she had searched for another topic and found it to be much more complicated:

I think it (the topic) is not so heavy because I search for belief in the day of judgement it is more difficult than this one. (Mila: Interview)

In a different interview about the same matter, Ina explained that besides knowing the audience, they needed to know the topics too:

I think you must know who are the audience and we must know well the topics too (Ina: Interview)

Beside interviews, Ina and Mila wrote their self-reflections on Schoology LMS. Ina mentioned her wish to present more enjoyable topics and beneficial activities:

I hope we can do more videos maybe about ourselves or maybe more enjoyable topics before we make educational videos so that everyone knows the fun to make videos. I think that is all from me. I hope we can have more beneficial activities through OPIC (Oral Presentation in Islamic Contents). (Ina: Self-Reflection on Schoology)

They preferred more enjoyable and interesting topics, as difficult topics may cause them anxiety when delivering their speeches. One of the pre-service teachers mentioned that, if the topic is interesting, she can deliver with confidence.

3. Forethought

Bandura (2006), as a prominent researcher in self-efficacy study, stated the second core property of human agency is forethought, that is being focused on a future-directed plan. To encourage their efforts, the pre-service teachers set themselves goals and expected outcomes for their presentations. Through cognitive representations, they could visualize their actions in order to motivate their presentations. This course of action promoted purposeful behaviour that directed meaningful oral presentations. Mila also wrote about positive things in her self-reflection on Schoology:

Everything that is considered as positive things will remain as it is. (Mila: Self-Reflection on Schoology)

Ina mentioned in her written self-reflection about staying positive in the way she expressed herself:

In future, I hope I can relieve my anxiety before performance faster than before and I will make sure everything is well-prepared at least two days before presenting. I will also overcome my fear to the ignorant audience and believe in myself that there are always people who want to hear me talking. (Ina: Written Self-Reflection)

Ina and Mila demonstrated forethought in their future-directed plan to stay positive. The pre-service teachers had set goals and expected outcomes to stay positive and encourage their efforts in their presentations.

4. Reactiveness in Oral Presentation

Bandura (2006) states that the third core property of human agency is self-reactiveness. For self-reactiveness, self-regulatory processes are needed. Self-regulatory processes are the ability to construct appropriate courses of action from action plans. The pre-service teachers were not only planners and fore thinkers, but they were also self-regulators and self-motivators; one cannot just sit and hope for the appropriate presentations to appear. They have to practice and prepare before the oral presentation to become good self-regulators. In her interview, Mila also emphasized that she had to practice a lot to make her oral presentation less stressful for her:

I have to do a lot of practice of course because when I get used to that environment of speaking I am sure that I can deliver the speech very well because the day I give that oral presentation, I practice with my friends and I can feel that it is better.  (Mila: Interview)

This statement was further supported by Mila in her written self-reflection:

I know that there are some steps that I need to practise to be a better presenter in future. (Mila: Written Self-Reflection)

Additionally, Mila emphasised in her written self-reflection that she had to practise a lot alone:

I have to practise a lot alone, in front of the mirror and even with some friends. Second, I also need to search for some information on how to achieve a good level. (Mila: Written Self-Reflection)

Ina had the same standpoint, as she said in her interview that preparation is the most important thing:

First of all, preparation is the most important thing if we don’t prepare much like we’re not prepared to present that day, we might not present it well so we must prepare everything well, must have a rehearsal before we start presenting, so that it will not become like what you call it… You will not be… you know when we are not prepared we are so nervous, right? So, you must be prepared.  (Ina: Interview)

Ina added in the same interview:

We must be prepared so that we have confidence.  (Ina: Interview)

Mila and Ina mentioned that preparing the oral presentation is an important self-regulatory step to becoming a better presenter. They became self-regulators by preparing sufficiently, particularly when the topic was unfamiliar.

5. Self-Reflectiveness in Oral Presentation

Bandura (2006) states that the fourth core property of human agency is self-reflectiveness. Pre-service teachers are examiners of their own functions. They reflect on the soundness of their thoughts and actions. Most human functioning is socially situated; for example, the pre-service teacher who was formally a presenter became an audience member when another pre-service teacher presented in front of the class. They reflected on their self-efficacy and made the corrective adjustments in order to present more confidently, avoid mistakes and fulfil their desire for moral support. Mila confirmed this in her self-reflection:

I even asked one of my friends that I was comfortable with to train and teach me how to be a good presenter. Thanks a lot to her. I also had the strength when I saw her supportive face when I was giving my speech. (Mila: Written Self-Reflection)

Mila in her self-reflections wrote about different techniques they employed as self-examiners use to make themselves confident such as thinking positively.

First, I need to groom myself and dress nicely. This seems like such an obvious one, but it’s amazing how much of a difference a shower can make in my feelings of self-confidence and for myself-image. There have been days when I turned my mood around completely with this one little thing. Next, I need to train myself to always think positively and kill all the negative thoughts. I have to acquire to be aware of my self-talk, the thoughts I have about myself and what I am doing. Besides, I also have to act positively. More than just thinking positive, I have to put it into action. Action is the key to developing self-confidence. (Mila: Written Self-Reflection)

Meanwhile, in Ina’s written self-reflection she mentioned she felt confident if her audience was listening to her presentation and showing interest in it:

I will feel confident while performing if I see my audience is listening to my presentation and show interest in it. My confidence level will surely increase and I will be happy and enjoy performing my oral presentation to the audience. (Ina: Written Self-Reflection)

Ina confirmed that confidence is the most important thing:

Of course, confidence is the most important thing when we want to present.  (Ina: Written Self-Reflection)

Ina wrote in her self-reflection that, before she started, she would smile and started to talk, and then she would usually feel calmer and confident:

Before I start, I will smile and start to talk. If I do these steps, I will usually feel calmer and confident. (Ina: Written Self-Reflection)

Ina wrote in her self-reflection that she would say her prayer to calm herself:

I can overcome this anxiety. I need time to prepare myself with information and clear understanding of the topic I have chosen so that I feel confident and calm. Before I perform, I will say my prayer to calm myself. Then, I need to look at my audience and find faces which can relieve my anxiety. Before I start, I will smile and start to talk. If I do these steps, I will usually feel calmer and confident. (Ina: Written Self-Reflection)

In Mila’s self-reflection, she related how she tried to be comfortable with the surroundings:

I felt confident when I had been on the stage for 5 minutes after that. I tried to be comfortable with my way of standing and the surrounding. (Mila: Written Self-Reflection)

As self-examiners, these pre-service teachers found that confidence is an important element for being good presenters. Many factors contributed to their confidence, including the lecturer’s smile. Confidence is important in the self-efficacy practice among pre-service teachers because it relates to humans functioning effectively through their perceptions (ErÖZkan, 2014). Confidence is one’s perceptions of one’s ability to effectively function when performing tasks. Experts in confidence studies have said confidence is a judgment about one’s capabilities for the accomplishment of a goal and how the capabilities will be expanded (Bandura, 1977; Zimmerman et al., 1992). Confidence specific to a task relates to one’s belief that one can accomplish the task correctly (Miller, 2010; Wyat, 2015).

6. Self-Enhancement in Oral Presentation

Ina further wrote in her self-reflection on Schoology LMS that she had managed to control her anxiety:

OPIC (Oral Presentation in Islamic Contents) helps me to go through that and gratefully, I managed to overcome my anxiety, not completely but now I know how to control it. (Ina: Self-Reflection on Schoology)

Mila added in the self-reflection on Schoology LMS that, besides speaking skills, she wanted to improve her presentation skills:

One main objective that I know is to improve our speaking and presentation skills. As a future teacher, I do really think that these skills are vital as we need to interact with people especially our students continuously. Therefore, we need to always reflect ourselves and try to improve our skills. (Mila: Self-Reflection on Schoology)

Ina mentioned their self-control in the oral presentations. For self-enhancement, the pre-service teachers realized that they had to control their oral presentation anxiety to enhance their performance.

The first self-efficacy practice they applied intentionality when they planned a future course of action to be presented like the intention to overcome anxiety, to build confidence and to present more enjoyable topics. If, they realized their weaknesses, they put the intentionality to improve their skill. One saying goes “Begin with an end in mind” (DeVito, 2014). Intention to begin has to already set one’s mind with the end achievements. Forethought, the second self-efficacy practice, was applied when they stay positive and make a joke as the individual goals to establish self-efficacy. The third self-efficacy practice is self-reactiveness in which they exercised practicing and preparing the oral presentation to have better performances. The fourth self-efficacy practice is self-reflectiveness that they avoid making mistakes, seeking for moral support and need to be confidence. The emergent theme from the self-efficacy practice is self-enhancement that they control themselves and make improvement in the oral presentation. Thus, the self-efficacy practice assisted them to become better presenters from their self-reflections. The pre-service teachers were contributors to their life situations, not just the products of what they did. They discovered their own self-efficacy to overcome that anxiety feeling. They reflected their own feeling and realize that they have their own potentials to succeed in their future undertakings and professional developments.

RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

We suggest for further research that interventions for low efficacious students should be personalized so that they develop self-reflection towards success. One strategy is to encourage students to set goals. Setting challenging goals and monitoring oral presentation against these goals offer a clear standard for comparing their progress at least presenting the oral presentation three times. Low efficacious students tend to prefer easy topics in which they can deliver efficiently. For example, a student could be given a week to read and practice an oral presentation. These oral presentations are relatively easy topics, so these should generate a sense of accomplishment. It should be noted that students who become very low in self-efficacy will tend to present easy topics as more difficult ones tend to be attributed to being beyond ability. It becomes crucial for lecturers to provide positive feedback for students who are low in self-efficacy. It is recommended that lecturers impose self-reflection on all pre-service teachers during the process of learning. Knowing that academic self-efficacy plays a significant role in academic achievement, therefore it is vital to explore, how each pre-service teachers’ practice self-efficacy in their learning process.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the present study results indicate the importance of developing self-efficacy practice related to the topics of interest. As self-efficacy practice was taken after the oral presentation, this study suggests that self-efficacy practice could be used to identify students at risk of failing, and lecturers could develop personalized support programs. The findings on self-efficacy through self-reflection; those self-efficacy practices were intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness and self-reflectiveness, and the discussion of the emerging theme; self-enhancement. The findings indicate that the self-efficacy practice assisted them to excel in their oral presentation. The lecturers need to consider the self-efficacy practice by the pre-service teachers so that they can have the insight of the pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy that enable to enhance the classroom oral presentation in the second language in future.

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