South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Year: 2021 (June), Volume: (2), Issue. (3) First page: (53) Last page: (70) Online ISSN: 2582-7065 doi:10.48165/sajssh.2021.2304
Influence of Organizational Excellence Factors on the Organizational Performance and Moderation of Organizational Support in Dubai Police
Nasser Yousuf Mohammad Fakhari1, Badariah Haji Din2 and Abd. Rahim Bin Romle3
1,2,3College of Law, Government and International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia.
Corresponding Author: Nasser Yousuf Mohammad FakhariEmail: email@example.com
3rd June 2021
24th January 2021
19th May 2021
How to cite the Article
This study is exploring the influences from different organisational excellence factors on the organisational performance besides to examination of the organisational support moderation interact in Dubai police in the UAE. The proposed model of this study is a combination between three organisational excellence factors, management support, and organisational performance. Innovation, personal commitment, and customer focus are the independent variables that have impact on the organisational performance as the dependent variable. Besides, management support is considered as the moderating variable in the particular model of this study. The actual sample of this research is 388 police officers, which was collected from different police stations and department in Emirate of Dubai. The target or study population chosen for this research is the total number of police officers in all levels and all departments at the Dubai police. Overall, direct relationships for the seven predictors of organisational excellence factors are significant; the precedence for the relations based on the path coefficient value are personal commitment (0.750), innovation (0.683), and customer focus (0.631). For the moderating relationships of management support, it has no significant change in the path coefficient and the moderating effect is not significant.
Management Support, Organisational Performance, Organisational Excellence, Innovation, Customer Focus. Personal Commitment
Without any doubt, police have been recognized as a crucial component of society and their functions cannot be underestimated in the maintenance of peace, order, harmony and ensuring adherence to law in every society (Masood et al., 2017). The services of police create collective national security and employ the use of the state power over the citizens (Rautiainen et al., 2017). For any society to perform and operate smoothly, police agencies in a country must be organized to accomplish the societal mission and objectives (Kenneth, 2016). Arising from the necessity of police performance at all times, Dubai government empowers the Public Security Directorate (PSD) to ensure security and safety in the country (Machi, 2020). The Anti-Narcotics Department of PSD has the main role of curbing smuggling of drugs. Similarly, the Arab and International Police Department (AIPD) links the law enforcement agencies in Dubai to their global counterparts (Idris, 2019). Also, the Ministry of Labour and PSD have a joint Anti-Trafficking Unit, which is responsible for conducting anti-trafficking investigations. In terms of legislation, the country also puts in place legislation such as the Penal Code which makes corruption, bribery, extortion, money laundering, abuse of office criminal, and Anti-Human Trafficking Law (Idris, 2019).
Arising from this discussion, and in line with theories such as agency theory, motivational theory and Resource Based theory, this study will empirically examine the performance of police in Dubai (Nweiran, 2019). The study will investigate the impact of five factors (motivation, organizational excellence, Total Quality Management, competence, and information technology) on the performance of police force in Dubai (Alosani et al., 2019). Based on the importance of support in achieving high performance as indicated by the previous studies, the study will make use of management support as an intervening variable that mediates the relationship between the five independent variable and the dependent variable. The study tends to contribute to the body of knowledge, practice and theory.
Similarly, the concept of organizational excellence relating to performance has been subjected to an empirical test by the previous studies. Many researchers such as Al-Dhaafri et al (2016), have established that there is a significant relationship between organizational excellence and business performance in different settings and countries. However, other scholars such as (Antony & Bahattacharyya, 2010), have emphasized that the relationship between the two constructs cannot be clearly defined. For example, Dawabsheh et al. (2019), revealed that the achievement of organizational excellence in a public sector is different from that of the private sector. While Rahman et al (2019), argued that both private and public sectors have the same maturity level when it comes to business excellence. Arising from this inconsistency in findings with the fact that the previous studies were conducted in different settings and country, this study will also fill the gap in the study by examining the relationship between organizational excellence and performance of police in Dubai.
The agency theory requires the accountability of the agent to the principal (Kunst & Beugelsdijk, 2018; Serapicos et al., 2019), and the resource-based theory (Galbreath, 2005) stipulates that the tangible and intangible resources of an organization has an impact on its performance. In other words, the investment of government on police through taxpayers’ fund need to be justified by providing adequate security for the lives and property of the citizens. In conclusion, based on this discussion associated with the performance problem in the police setting in Dubai with relevant theories and gaps in each of the variables identified, this study will examine the factors (motivation, organizational excellence, Total Quality Management, competence, and information technology) affecting the performance of police in Dubai. The study will also investigate the mediating influence of management on the relationship between these factors and police performance.
Based on the above illustration on the advancement in the Dubai police and need for continuous improvement is all managerial facets, this study is exploring the influences from different organisational excellence factors on the organisational performance besides to examination of the organisational support moderation interact in Dubai police in the UAE
- Organisational Excellence
In enhancement, the business quality is a lot more relevant to service, as the label suggests, the business quality is used more in the social industries, whereas the service quality is used more in the personal fields companies (Li & Shang, 2020). Furthermore, the scholastic analysis standpoint, the business distinction principle emerged from Waterman and Peter (1982), which is a resolution on the partnership between various efficiency clues (Antony & Bahattacharyya, 2010). Moreover, the company distinction aids the monitoring to set apart the degree of excellence in a better method than in business efficiency (Fernando et al., 2019). However, the administration standpoint, Dahlgaard-Park (2009), describes the company distinction as an idea utilized in top quality administration to improve the company monitoring degree to the quality amount which will certainly offer great results.
In addition, the business superiority is specified as an intro developing, building up and publication of improvement, to boost and ensure the efficiency of the institution, it’s also the development, improvement and historical procedure for company renovation (Narayan, 2020). However, the business superiority as a devotion to maintain the development and progression to attain constant boost in the productivity of the supporting atmosphere and the consumer complete satisfaction (Ashraf et al., 2018). The quality was made to determine capacities of organizations to accomplish premium, premium functionality, and development recognition and functionality distinction within an affordable framework (Kapsalis et al., 2019). As well as the company superiority possess feasible attributes in relations to consumers, staff members, management, resources proprietors, knowing, potential age, distributors and important companions, improvement and globalization (Baluku et al., 2018). The business distinction is a collection of techniques and approaches like innovation to attain greater functionality in an association (França et al., 2017).
Furthermore, the company superiority and organization superiority versions are help business to assess level of going to quality business course (Landoni et al., 2020). As well as the companies to review on their own with the absolute best procedures, to inspire for self-evolution, explanation, awareness and to clarify the mindsets connected to lead of functionality (Ward, 2019). Moreover, the business quality the perk of embracing the business superiority versions is assist to heal requests of efficiency and their results, institution capable of discussing assistance, info and interactions, resources for efficiency administration and impression, and guiding for their critical organizing and finding out chances (Wald, 2020).
In various other terms, quality model guideline may boost and have an effect on the company efficiency of a provider (Machta et al., 2019). The previous research studies of the connection between company distinction and business functionality showed that distinction is a priority to attain jazzed-up (Ebersole, 2020). Moreover, the research suggests that the effect of business distinction on the business efficiency is still different, so this research study recommended that the business distinction variable could describe the operation to possess a higher impact (Zhu et al., 2020). In enhancement, the business superiority is more relevant to the company or company quality (Liu, 2020). As the title suggests, the company superiority is more utilized in the social market companies, whereas the organization distinction is more utilized in the exclusive industries associations (Zhang et al., 2020). However, the business quality is used in high quality monitoring, to improve the company administration amount to the superiority amount which will certainly show a superb end result (Labanauskaitė et al., 2020).
According to the business superiority and company superiority designs are guitars that aid the company to gauge a high level in the superiority road (Hausberg & Korreck, 2020). Along with concerns to the business distinction, explained that the advantages of using the company quality styles are: aid to fix documents of functionality and their end results, institution capable to discuss assistance, details and interactions; devices for functionality monitoring and understanding; and routing for their calculated preparation and finding out possibilities (Frishammar & Parida, 2019).
- Organisational Performance
Several studies have focused on the company organizational performance, this results from the truth that the relevance of business efficiency in creating institution and the significant ramification of these research studies on business performance and competitiveness (Akram et al., 2019). Moreover, the organizational performance is pertaining to one of the most crucial variables in the regions of strategic management and company research (Al-Dhaafri et al., 2016). Both academicians and specialists carried out numerous research studies on the business efficiency, to clarify the procedure, determinant, antecedents and various other essential traits that enhance the results of the company (Al-Ahbabi et al., 2017). The function of the public industry is to bring in efficiency goals and resource, and if you want to integrate the budget pattern and policy to the financial and nonfinancial relevant information on the control details (Heinicke & Guenther, 2020). As explained by Yusoff et al. (2020), the rate of interest in the performance of the public industry has been developing.
The organizational performance is commonly found in two forms, either as trait dimensions that are scored subjectively by the officer’s immediate supervisor based on observed behaviors, or as activities arising from the tasks related to the police function that are scored objectively based on the number of instances per activity (Vila et al., 2018). This model relies on a quantitative appraisal of police activity because it is objective, grounded in relevant activities that relate to the things the police do as well as, closes a gap in previous studies, where researchers may not have operationalized relevant performance indicators that measure effectiveness, efficiency and quality (Tankebe et al., 2016).
The improving police management necessitates a logical structure that connects police activities to intermediate objectives, and to end outcomes (Shane, 2018). This provides the basis for systematic evaluation of effectiveness, efficiency and quality by creating a more rational structure with the aim of developing the technical core of policing (Kane et al., 2018). This enables top administrators to pay closer attention to the logic behind their mission, particularly connecting lower-level activities with higher-level goals to clarify employee expectations and define departmental obligations (Golubovskaya et al., 2017). On the other hand, the organizational functionality dimension is quite crucial in today’s open market and in the changing of the organization settings to analyze the amount of excellence in the company approach path (Ayaz, 2018).
Even with the study on business functionality, there isn’t an overall agreement among the article writers and scholars on the organizational functionality definition and permitted method of meaning to the organizational efficiency (Assaad, 2019). The functionality measurement might also be synthesized to investigate the development in the direction of the intended purpose, by recognizing the enhancement options, driving future information allocation, achieving business placement and target congruence, corresponding to each promoting and personal specific attitudes and practices (Kühnen & Hahn, 2019). The company performance pay attention to four areas to determine the performance, this includes maximize stakeholder worth, obtain method quality, boost business knowing and delight client (Harbi et al., 2017).
Even with the research that is carried out on the organizational functionality, there isn’t an overall opinion of the writers and academics on the company efficiency interpretation and permitted method of meaning of the business performance (Assaad, 2019). The company performance concentrate on four locations for evaluating efficiency, this includes maximize stakeholder worth, attain process excellence, boost business discovering and joy consumer (Harbi et al., 2017).
- Management Support
Top administration help towards the execution of information units is illustrated by techniques, which are observed by personal staff members such as supplying training and understanding systems (Chapman, & Schott, 2020). The administration needs to also possess a sturdy devotion to use the unit as a way to attain the company objectives (Hang, 2020). Dedication from elderly managers is destined to urge workers to use an info device (Jarrahi et al., 2020). Any kind of backing from top monitoring, might help employees to be included in any kind of information systems (Ramlah et al., 2007). Some of the essential ideas about information technology execution are that it’s the best administration’s assistance and the function that managerial entities play in the successful implementation of the information technology remedy (Lin et al., 2010). As was extensively supposed by the literature reviewed within this research study, senior managers need to educate workers about the sight, function of the new unit and its value beforehand, and recognize the project as a best priority (Belhadi et al., 2019).
The management support has been introduced for senior managers only and therefore the police officers may not have experienced a change in management support or discretionary power (Brunetto et al., 2020). The capita resourcing may have increased workloads, there has been no increase in the discretionary power of managers and no increased accountability and therefore discretionary power should be higher than for police (Brunetto et al., 2020). As per previous research, the employees’ levels of satisfaction with supervisor-subordinate exchanges, however, the expect the impact to be greatest upon police officers (Kumar, 2020). When police officers’ satisfaction with management support is examined, the findings show that police have significantly lower satisfaction with management (Paoline & Gau, 2020).
- Organisational Excellence and Organizational Performance
The organizational excellence and organizational performance are one of the most necessary measurement indicators for the association’s excellence, success, improvement, growth, and competitiveness. They are interrelated, where each of them result in various executing business distinction as a method that includes innovation, which may trigger superior functionality. According to the Antony and Bhattacharyya (2010), contended that existing designs of superiority check out excellence as an outstanding level of functionality. In the business of business functionality, there is a standard question of how companies may seek organization quality, maintain and achieve affordable benefits (Dahlgaard & Dahlgaard-Park, 2006; Watson, 2003).
Organizational excellence is defined as the ongoing initiatives to develop an inner framework of procedures and criteria planned to engage and encourage workers to supply services and products that accomplish client demands within service expectations (Al-Dhaafri et al., 2016; Alamiri et al., 2020; Hashemy et al., 2016). On the other hand, Organizational performance makes up the actual output or results of a company as gauged against its designated outputs (or goals and objectives) (Al-Dhaafri et al., 2016; Rao, 2016; Ubaid et al., 2020). So that, and according to many researchers such as (Rao, 2016; Al Shobakib et al., 2017; Stoyanova & Iliev, 2017; Ubaid et al., 2020) they found out that the use of organizational excellence will help to create more good reputation about the institution and a better communication between the clients and the service provider, and this will lead to a better and higher organizational performance (Aquilani, Silvestri, Ruggieri, & Gatti, 2017; Dawabsheh, Hussein, & Jermsittiparsfert, 2019; Supriyanto et al., 2017; Tortorella, Giglio, Fogliatto, & Sawhney, 2019). and based on that the researcher is expecting significant positive direct effect of organizational excellence on the organizational performance. And this hypothesis is consistent with other hypothesis in others studies such as;(Al-Dhaafri et al., 2016; Aquilani et al., 2017; Hashemy et al., 2016; Rao, 2016; Stoyanova & Iliev, 2017; Tortorella et al., 2019).
- Hypothesis H1: Innovation has a significant effect on the organizational performance.
- Hypothesis H2: Customer focus has a significant effect on the organizational performance.
- Hypothesis H3: Personal commitment has a significant effect on the organizational performance.
- Management Support as a Moderating Effect
Management support that is represented by Support managers supervise the maintenance and security of technical services and information within an organization, as well as ensuring adequate training and abilities of IT employees (Dwarswaard, Bakker, van Staa, & Boeije, 2016; Lee, Shiue, & Chen, 2016). Furthermore usually management support results in availability of financial resources, in-time allocation of human and other physical resources and also it refers to the delegation of necessary power to project leaders and project team for successful completion of projects (Maes, 2017; Pearce et al., 2016; Wijermans, Conrado, van Steen, Martella, & Li, 2016). On the other hand, and as has been describes in the previous hypotheses, all independent variables expected to have a direct positive impact on organization performance, furthermore, many researchers such as (Abu-Naser & Shobaki, 2017; Dwarswaard et al., 2016; Hersona & Sidharta, 2017; Hitt & Tambe, 2016; Kanyuga, 2019; Kheng & Muthuveloo, 2019; Kontoghiorghes, 2016; Li, Kim, & Zhao, 2017; Olusadum & Anulika, 2018; Pearce et al., 2016; Wijermans et al., 2016) have studied the moderating role of management support between some of this study variables organizational performance and the studies found out that management support has a positive moderating impact in such relationships (Al-Dhaafri et al., 2016; Hazen et al., 2017; Sturm et al., 2017). And based on that the researcher is expecting significant positive direct moderating effect of management support on the relationship between this study independent variables organizational performance. And this hypothesis is consistent with other hypothesis in others studies such as; (Abu-Naser & Shobaki, 2017; Abualoush et al., 2018; Aljazzaf, 2019; Allen et al., 2016; Anra & Yamin, 2017; Cho et al., 2020; Dharma, 2018; Dwarswaard et al., 2016; Hersona & Sidharta, 2017; Kheng & Muthuveloo, 2019; Muhammedrisaevna et al., 2020; Wahab et al., 2020).
- Hypothesis H4: Management support moderate the relationship between organizational excellence and organizational performance.
- Conceptual Framework
The proposed model of this study is a combination between three organisational excellence factors, management support, and organisational performance. Innovation, personal commitment, and customer focus are the independent variables that have impact on the organisational performance as the dependent variable. Besides, management support is considered as the moderating variable in the particular model of this study (as seen in Figure 1)
Figure 1: Research Framework
The study assumed that the organisational performance, organisational excellence, and organisational support can be quantified and predicted based on cause effect analysis model. Therefore, this study belongs to positivism philosophy, deduction approach, quantitative methodology, empirical survey study, used cross sectional data. This study is a scientific approach study arranged into systematic steps to formulate hypotheses for the research topic and provide a deductive approach to evaluate that hypotheses.
The actual sample of this research is 388 police officers, which was collected from different police stations and department in Emirate of Dubai. The target or study population chosen for this research is the total number of police officers in all levels and all departments at the Dubai police.
The tools used for data collection is a well-structured survey that adapted from previous studies and adapted to be suitable for this particular study. The survey were organized to ask question in likert-5 format. Likert 5 questionnaire style has been used in social science studies for long time and proved to be a suitable style for measuring human perceptions. The organisational performance scale is based on the balance scorecard and questions sourced from (Kaplan & Norton, 2000; Welter et al., 2011). The management support scale is adapted from (Al Shobaki Mazen et al., 2016; Ismail et al., 2019). The organisational excellence scales are based on different related studies and questions sourced (Parida & Sundaray, 2019; Sadiq, 2014). Structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques are used for statistical data analysis via the SmartPLS software package, which is used in management and social science studies such as (Salem & Alanadoly, 2020; Salem & Salem, 2018).
In PLS-SEM, two part of data analysis is essential in regression-based models, the reliability and validity tests (measurement model) and the relationships tests (structural Model)
- Validity and Reliability of Constructs
Several measures have been conducted such as composite reliability, outer loading, convergent validity, and discriminant validity to ensure reliability and validity of the measurement model (Hair Jr et al., 2016; Sekaran & Bougie, 2016). As shown in Tables1, composite reliability is measured by Cronbach’s Alpha and all values are above the cut-off value of 0.70. Therefore, the reliability of measurement model is achieved. The average Variance Extracted (AVE) values are above 0.5, therefore convergent validity is achieved. Table 2 shows the matrix of Fornell-Larcker criterion, which indicates that no discriminate validity issues are. Table 3 shows the outer loading of the items in its variables, in which only one variable deleted because of its weak loading below the threshold of 0.708. In addition, outer loading for all the items is above 0.708 with no cross loading from foreign item, therefore indicator reliability is achieved.
Table 1: Internal Consistency and Convergent Validity
|Organisational Performance – Customer||OP_Cu||0.700||0.786|
|Organisational Performance – Financial Performance||OP_FP||0.807||0.920|
|Organisational Performance – Internal Process||OP_IP||0.669||0.754|
|Organisational Performance – Learning and Growth||OP_LG||0.645||0.816|
|Organisational Excellence – Customer Focus||OE_CF||0.659||0.825|
|Organisational Excellence – Innovation||OE_I||0.701||0.785|
|Organisational Excellence – Personal Commitment||OE_PC||0.760||0.837|
Table 2: Discriminant validity – Fornell-Larcker Criterion
Table 3: Outer Loadings of the proposed items
- Relationships Examinations and Discussions
The research study relationships are in one instruction along with the ideal degree of evaluation is one-tailed. Table 4 shows the path coefficient assessment with the values of T Statistics and also Beta values for the end result variable organisational performance (OP). All antecedents have significant relationships, in which the p value scores are above 0.05 and the t statistics ratings are above 1.98. The overall organisational excellence has a path coefficient of 0.355. The precedence for the different factors of the organisational excellence based on the path coefficient value are PC (0.750), I (0.683), CF (0.631).
Table 4: Path Coefficient Assessment of crisis management (CM)
|Path Coefficient||Standard Deviation||T Statistics||P Value (one tailed)||Status|
|OE-CF 🡪 OP||0.631||0.055||11.498||0.000||Significant|
|OE-PC 🡪 OP||0.750||0.033||22.507||0.000||Significant|
|Overall OE 🡪 OP||0.355||0.041||8.587||0.000||Significant|
Table 5 shows the path coefficient assessment with the values of T Statistics values for the moderating variable management support. Respectively, the p value and t statistics values are out of the threshold acceptable values because 0.883 is out of the 5% significance level. Therefore, management support has no moderating effect on the proposed relationship.
Table 5: Moderation Assessment of Management Support
|Path Coefficient||Standard Deviation||T Statistics||P Value (one tailed)||Status|
|Moderating Effect OE 🡪 OP||0.005||0.034||0.144||0.885||Non-Significant|
Overall, direct relationships for the seven predictors of organisational excellence factors are significant; the precedence for the relations based on the path coefficient value are personal commitment (0.750), innovation (0.683), and customer focus (0.631). For the moderating relationships of management support, it has no significant change in the path coefficient and the moderating effect is not significant.
CONTRIBUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The study contributes to the knowledge of organisational excellence practices, organisational performance, and managerial support in the police of Dubai. The proposed combination of wide variety of organisational excellence practices and inclusion of management support as a moderator is another theoretical contribution especially when it is applied in the police performance. The study also add knowledge about the effective organisational excellence practices that applied in Dubai police, which assure the fact that Dubai police is one of the most effective police force in the world.
Managers and decision makers in police performance in the UAE and worldwide should emphasize on the personal commitment, innovation, and customer because those are the most contributors to the effective organisational performance. Policy makers should create new policies to assure the compliance with all organisational excellence practices to assure that the police must have the best performance.
This study is limited to the empirical examination of the UAE – Dubai police; however, replicating the same design with same research design, but in different countries, will provide extra knowledge to generalize the proposed relations. The interception of management support in the relationship from organisational excellence practices are found to be no significant, additional work is needed to reveal the reason and explain this non logical relation. In addition, the model can be integrated with other other managerial practices and examined to increase the explanation power of the model.
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