South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Year: 2021 (Feb), Volume: (2), Issue. (1) First page: (49) Last page: (62) Online ISSN: 2582-7065 doi: 10.48165/sajssh.2021.2105
A Narrative Inquiry: Students Perception in Increasing Teachers’ Identity By Join Microteaching
Febri Ayu Setiyorini1, Yoga Prihatin2 & Masfuad Edi Santoso3
123Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Pancasakti Tegal, Indonesia
Corresponding Author: Febri Ayu Setiyorini, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
10th Nov 2020
12th Jan 2021
How to cite the Article
Teaching is the process of focusing on people’s needs, experiences, and feelings. It makes the students learning new things for their future. Microteaching can be one of ways to help the students of teacher training and education to improve their teaching skills to be suitable with required qualifications and building up their teachers’ identity. This research aims to know what the students of the 8th semester English Department’s perceptions on microteaching related to their teaching practicum by using questionnaire and interview. Testing the validity and reliability of questionnaire uses correlation product moment SPSS. From fifteen questions, one question is invalid. Meanwhile, the results of this research are students of 8th semester English Department agree that microteaching is effective to build up their teaching competences and ability.
Microteaching, Teaching competencies, Students perceptions
English is the official language in the world. In many countries, English is taught as a foreign language especially in Indonesia. Teaching a language is a process that requires many qualifications and competencies. Obviously, we must be eligible to become an English teacher. The academic qualification and background knowledge of EFL Teacher have regulated by The 1945 Constitution (UUD 1945) No. 14/2005 about Teachers and Lecturers, Paragraph 7 section 3, which said teachers and lecturers are professions which must have the academic qualification and specific background knowledge. As the result, microteaching can be one of ways to help them to improve their teaching skills to be suitable with required qualifications and building up their teachers’ identity (Sele, 2020).
According to Sisman and Acat (2003), Teaching is a profession that needs special knowledge and skills, then the teachers should be given trainings before starting their profession. In order to prepare the teacher candidates to be professional, they have to understand the teacher’s competences as mention in government regulation (Peraturan Pemerintah) No. 19/2005 about Standar nasional Pendidikan. Those Competencies are pedagogical competence, personal competence, professional competence, and social competence. Joining microteaching class is very important. Sanli (2009) said that microteaching has become a successful and interesting method for transferring theory to practice for the students in a faculty of teacher training and education.
In everyday life situations, people are usually characterized by certain identities, especially in a teaching environment. The term identity was formerly used to refer to the individualized person’s self –image. Professional identity is a professional self-concept based on various factors, for instance, experience, belief, values, motivations, and attributes. Motallebzadeh Kazemi (2018) Professional identity is expressed in “Who I am” and “Who I want to become.” Teacher identity is related to teaching and teacher development.
Microteaching is a technique introduced by Dr. Dwight Allen for teachers training. Stanford University USA is the first place used microteaching as an effort to increase teachers’ quality such as in teaching skill.(Ali & Mittal, 2015) Microteaching is considered as one of the most effective tools in bridging between theory and practice because as the students of teacher training and education they will practice all of knowledge, they get during lecture. The students use teaching laboratory that provides camera to record the whole activities while the teaching practice going on. It provides to facilitate the students to do teaching practice. Allan stated that in a classroom the number of students will be about 20 – 30 people and it is reduced into 5- 10 students in microteaching. Learning et al., (2015), but in one of Universities in Tegal, every microteaching class consists of 22 students as the participants and the students practice it about 30 – 45 minutes. During the microteaching itself, the topic is specific as a topic they get and the limitation of teaching time. As the result, microteaching will contain limited goal that need to be practiced in the classroom. Microteaching is a real teaching process but not similar to teaching at school, but the curriculum used is similar, 2013 curriculum.
Microteaching helps the students of teacher training and education to have competencies that the teacher must have. As cited in the national education standard (Standar Nasional Pendidikan) paragraph 3 section 28-point A, B, C, D that competencies are:
- Pedagogic competence
Based on Standard National Education Article 8 paragraph 3point A, pedagogic competence is the ability to manage teaching and learning which includes understanding of students, designing and implementing learning, evaluating learning outcomes, and developing students to actualize their various potentials.
- Personality competence
Based on Standard National Education Article 8 paragraph 3point B, personality competence is a strong, stable, mature, wise, authoritative, good personality, and having a noble character.
- Professional competence
Based on Standard National Education Article 8 paragraph 3point C, Professional competence is the ability of understanding learning materials widely and deeply that the students also possible to reach the competency which have set in the Standard National Education.
- Social competence
Based on Standard National Education Article 8 paragraph 3point D, social competence is the ability of the teacher as part of the community to communicate and interact effectively with students, fellow educators, education staff, parents or students’ guardians, and surrounding community.
According to Dweikat (2009), there are 4 phases in microteaching. First, the students of teacher training study a specific teaching skill. It means, before they do teaching practice they will get the theories. Second, they conduct it in a small portion of the lesson. After they get theories, they try to teach a small classroom and their own friends as the participants. Then, the students get feedback about their performance in teaching English, and the last one is taking place when they receive feedback from the lecturer and their own friends. Ba (2015)
Microteaching has advantages, such as:
- It focuses on sharpening and developing specific teaching skills and eliminates the error. In microteaching, the students of teacher training are expected to avoid the mistakes, but they are helped by their colleagues which pretending as the students.
- Increases the confidence of the students of teacher training
Most of the students of teacher training took the faculty of teacher training and education is not because they want to be a teacher. Of course, not all students of teacher training have confidence to teach even they just teach their own friends.
- Enables understanding of important behaviors in the classroom
As the students of teacher training, they are obviously still learning about how to communicate and control the class. Then, microteaching will improve their teaching performance.
- Acting as a way to continue the training, applicable at all stages not only to the teachers at the beginning of career but also for being a real teacher.
- Enables projection of model instructional skill
In microteaching, they will get many teaching models which showed by their friends. It can be practiced when we go to teaching practicum as a way to tell their real students about the materials.
- Providing expert supervision and constructive feedback.
The lecturer in microteaching class will give the students feedback about their teaching performance as a correction to better in the next practice.
- Repeated practice without adverse consequences to the teacher or students.
And also disadvantages such as:
- It fails to provide necessary training to a teacher to teach in a normal classroom. In a microteaching classroom, not all students join microteaching seriously. Thus, sometimes that training is not similar to a normal classroom.
- The limited number of students fails to arouse interest in teaching.
Microteaching is a small classroom that the participants are our friends. If we compare it with the real classroom at school, obviously it is truly different. That is why microteaching not very interesting for some people because the less of challenge in teaching.
- It requires the supervisors to be more critical.
The supervisor in microteaching is the lecturer. Students of teacher training need it to show us about our performance whether it is good or not and give them advice besides controlling the students and making teaching, practice run successfully. Ali & Mittal (2015)
- Teachers’ Identity
Teachers’ identity is someone’s professional self-concept based on factors such as experience, belief, values, motivations, and attributes. Ali & Mittal (2015) It is complex and it is developed by having interactions with other people. In a classroom, teacher is a role model for the students which all of the attitudes is recorded by the students easily. Having shrewdness is not enough because the students’ aim is not only looking for the knowledge but also build up their behavior at school and the teacher’s obligation is not only teaching theories but also educate and guide the students. Thus, teacher must have good characteristic.
There are factors that influence it, Pérez (2010) such as:
- The kind of activities implemented
As a teacher, preparing various kinds of activities is important as a way to increase students’ interest in learning. The materials presented in a class must be the mixing of vocabulary input (definitions, word in contexts, use of words), grammar rules (explanation, eliciting, and practice, and concepts (syntactical, semantic, linguistic, and cultural background information) and the teachers must explain it clearly and confidently. Pérez (2010) The type of materials should fit the students’ level, age, and group or class and pack it attractively to make the students interesting to learn.
- Social and affective aspects inside the classroom: Teacher-student(s) and student-student(s)
Communication is one of the important aspects of teaching and learning process to create a friendly atmosphere. Teachers and students are partner in learning. Pérez (2010) The teachers must know about students’ needs and interests by building good communication. Communication also can build good relationships among peers. For example, if the teacher asks them to answer the questions by teamwork it will increase the effectiveness of the learning process.
In the hand, one of the teachers’ identity aspects is “The teacher must increase students interest in learning”. There are teachers’ behaviors that can increase students’ interest in learning and build up students’ characteristics, such as:
- Helping students to solve their problem in learning
- Giving assignments and lessons clearly and provide examples
- Have a sense of humor, carefree, and happy
- Close to students
- Make the lesson becomes something fun for them
- Attractive personality
- Students’ Perception
Students’ perception is the result of interaction in teaching and learning environment which has characteristic. Könings (2007, p.13) It such the students tell what they feel after doing and joining teaching and learning process and they explain it. Sometimes, they also give advices for further activities.
Luyten, Lowyck, & Tuerlinckx (2001) and Wierstra & Beerends (1996) stated that this perspective is the result of interaction in teaching and learning environment that has characteristic. Könings (2007, p.13) It such the students tell what they feel after doing and joining the teaching and learning process and they explain it. Sometimes, they also give advice for further activities. It is also useful for the teacher to build up their skills and upgrade their knowledge in teaching because the students show their opinion.
There are three aspects need to be considered in knowing students’ perception:
Perceptions is an important thing in education because students’ perceptions influence their behavior, quality, and result of the learning process (Elen & Lowyck,1999; Entwistle & Tait, 1990, p. 130)
Desires play a role in the teaching and learning process. If the students’ have desires with respect, obviously they can join a learning process well.
Dissatisfaction with the perceived learning environment can influence the effectiveness. The differences between student’s desires and opportunity in environment influence the decrease of motivation and self-concept. Könings (2007, p.130)
- Narrative Inquiry
Josselson and Lieblich (1999) stated a narrative inquiry involves and documenting narrative similar to telling a story because in interviewing, the respondents are free to answer the questions. Recording it is important because the researcher might lose the content. Polkinghorne (1995) differentiated two forms of narrative inquiry as Analysis of Narratives and Narrative analysis. Analysis of Narratives means the use of story as data which analyzed by using standard procedures for qualitative content or thematic analysis. Beside of that, Narrative analysis refers to the use of storytelling as a means a way to analyze non-narrative data. This study uses analysis of narratives because the researcher gets the data by interview as story then analyzes it.
Because narrative inquiry uses the interview as a way to collect the data, Hollway and Jefferson (2000), have suggested four criteria in conducting the study by using interview. Such as:
- Use open-ended question
It means the informant can answer the question widely.
- Elicit Stories.
It means the question must ask the informant to answer it freely as they tell a story.
- Don’t use why question
It can be threatening for the informants because they feel tested by your question.
- Follow up using respondents’ ordering and phrasing
The question can ask the informant to answer the question clearly, because the answer can be developed. Savin-baden & Niekerk (2007)
This research is a qualitative study which researching students’ perception towards microteaching in English Department Pancasakti University Tegal. The respondents are students of 8th semester English Department that consists of 60 students. Class A and Class B as sample-class and Class C as a non-sample class.
The steps of conducting data are the researcher makes 15 questions and distributed it to class C as a non-sample class by sharing Google form link. Thus, after getting the results, the researcher tests the validity of the questionnaire by SPSS. The Aim of checking validity is to check whether the questions are valid and reasonable to distribute to the sample-classes. The last, researcher interviews the respondents to know their perceptions on microteaching and transcribe the results into a story
The validity of fifteen questions checking by correlation product moments in SPSS. The questions are valid if validating approval values (Pearson correlation) is positive, and the probability value is [sig. (2-tailed)] <significant level (α) 0.05 and reliable is 0.6 or > 0.6. The results is question number 6 is invalid, because the sig(2-tailed) is more than 0.005. This table shows the Pearson correlation and [sig. (2-tailed)] of 15 questions.
Table 1: The results of checking validity and reliability by SPSS
Afterwards, the researcher gives 14 valid questions to 41 students of the sample classes (Class A and Class B) to know what their perceptions towards microteaching
The diagram shows class sample students’ perceptions towards microteaching. Based on the diagram, the higher response is agree. It means microteaching in English Department UPS Tegal still needs improvement.
Another way to collect the data is by using Interview throung individuals experience (invidual narratives). As cited in Gold Murray in Qualitative Study in Applied Linguistics book, Narrative inquiry is a story or collection of stories and part of the qualitative study method. As Josselson and Lieblich (1999) stated a narrative inquiry involves and documenting narrative similar to telling a story because in interviewing, the respondents are free to answer the questions. Recording it is important because the researcher might lose the content.
In this research, the research provides 4 questions related to microteaching. There are 2 respondents name Elsa Nur Adeen and Suci Hapsari. Both of them come from different class. The first question in interview is “How far is microteaching effective to develop your teaching skills and teachers’ identity.” As Elsa recounted,
“I give score 10 for the effectiveness of microteaching. Microteaching dug students’ teaching skills such as pedagogic competence, personal competence, social competence, and professional competence.”
Positive response comes from Elsa. Elsa gives score 10 for the effectiveness of microteaching. As Elsa explains, she gets alterations after joining microteaching such as she feels more confident in teaching, she knows how to manage the classroom well, how to create English lesson plan, etc. A different response expressed by Suci. She recounted,
“I think microteaching was not good enough but effective because from microteaching I knew the real teaching situation. Microteaching has not enough to build up our teachers’ identity. I helped only 50%.”
As Suci recounts, Microteaching is not really giving influence to her teaching ability but effective. Microteaching makes her know the real teaching situation, but the limitation of time makes her feels not free to practice. This is proven by percentage that she gives for the effectiveness of microteaching. From these responses, the conclusion is most of the students of 8th semester English Department agree that microteaching is effective to increase and improve students’ teaching ability but still needs improvements in everything.
Thus, the second question is “What skill have you learnt in microteaching?” The first respondent, Elsa said,
“The basic of teacher competences. That is a very influential aspect in creating lesson plan.”
Elsa answers that she gets basic of teacher competences and creating lesson plan. It is appropriate for us to have basic of teacher competences as the students of teacher training and education. Creating lesson plan is the example. Lesson plan is important because listing a systematic guide that the teacher and the students will do during the course of the lesson and how they will learn it. Ghanaguru (2013)The purpose of the lesson plan is guiding and mapping the materials, teachers, and students thus, they can achieve the learning outcomes. On the other hand, Suci recounted,
“I got teaching skill, how to explain teaching materials clearly, how to evaluate the students.”
Suci said, after joining microteaching, she knows the way to explain teaching material clearly and teaching skills and how to evaluate the students. Explaining teaching materials still becoming something that makes most of students of English Department feel worry. In microteaching, they learn about how to be more confident in teaching especially in explaining something. Suci also recounts that she knows how to evaluate the students after joining microteaching. The role of teacher in evaluating the students is very important and can be done carelessly. By joining microteaching, the students learn how to evaluate the students correctly. From these responses, most of the students of 8th semester English Department agree that microteaching trains the students of teacher training and education to have teaching skills.
The third question is “What are benefits have you gotten after joining microteaching?” Elsa recounted,
“If I talk about advantages I got during microteaching, there were some advantages that I still get up to now such as I know the real teaching and learning environment. It makes me keep my spirit up to learn about teaching skills.”
As Elsa recounted, joining microteaching makes her knows the real teaching because before going to teaching practicum, the students must know the situation in real teaching and Elsa still feels the advantages until now. Another opinion comes from Suci. Suci said,
“The advantage I got such as I was more confidence in front of the students when I joined teaching practicum. Microteaching made me have strength to manage the classroom.”
Suci said that she gets advantage such she becomes more confident to stand up in front of her students in teaching practicum and the confidence becomes her strength to teach because becoming a teacher requires the students of teacher training and education to be sure and confident in teaching. Based on the explanation above, the conclusion is all of the students of 8th semester English Department agree that microteaching is very beneficial for the students of 8th semester English Department Pancasakti University.
The fourth question is “What is your suggestion for the next microteaching in English department UPS Tegal?” Elsa recounted,
“I hope class collaboration can be practiced in microteaching English department UPS Tegal, our friends can give us critics, and suggestion can be a better way to get the teaching improvement effectively.”
Elsa hopes teaching practice in microteaching English department can be collaborated with other classes. For example, a student from class A teaches students from Class C. Thus, the critics do not come only from the classmates but others. Suci also gives suggestion. She said,
“Facilities, LCD was not maximal and the lecturer too kind to give the score”.
As Suci suggested, she hopes that facilitates in teaching laboratory are repaired because facilitates are important to support the teaching practice and she also hopes that the lecturer give score objectively based on students’ ability.
Based on the discussion above, the conclusion is most of 8th semester students of English Department UPS Tegal agree that miroteaching effective to build up their teachers’ identity because microteaching trains them how to be a real teacher and makes them have 4 teacher’s competences.
It is evidenced by the percentage of agree is higher than disagree and strongly disagree (53%) and the respondents give possitive responses. They answer that microteaching is effective to build up their teachers’ identity and get advantages such as get ability to create a lesson plan, confident, managing classroom,etc. They also give suggestion for the next microteaching in English Department Pancasakti University such as time allocation and facilities. They hope the time allocation will be changed because long time is needed to practice and they hope facilities which broken will be repaired.
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