The Effect of Applying Organizational Justice on Job Burnout (An Applied Study in the Municipality of Samawah)

South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
Year: 2021 (Feb), Volume: 2, Issue. (2)
First page: (135) Last page: (155)
Online ISSN: 2582-7065
doi: 10.48165/sajssh.2021.2212

The Effect of Applying Organizational Justice on Job Burnout (An Applied Study in the Municipality of Samawah)

Jasim Rahi Kadim1, Yousif Mousa Sabti2, Ghazanfar Ali3, Yasir Abdullah Abbas4 and Sadeq Mehdi Shliot5

1,5Federal board of supreme audit / Muthanna Control Directorate.
2PhD Scholar, Al Muthana Provincial Council, University of Al-Qadisiyah-Iraq, Faculty of Administration & Economics Department of Bussinisess Administration, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia.
3Associate Lecturer, the Islamia University Nahawalpur, Pakistan.
4College of Administration and Economics, Department of Business Administration, University of Basrah-Iraq, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia.

Corresponding Author: Yousif Mousa Sabti, Email: yousif_mousa@oyagsb.uum.edu.my

Online Published: 10-April-2021

Received: 13th January 2020

Accepted: 15th March 2021

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ABSTRACT

The current research chose the dimensions of organizational justice (distributive justice, procedural justice, reactive justice) and the elimination of functional burnout (emotional stress, sagging feeling, and lack of a sense of achievement). The purpose of the research was to test whether organizational justice could contribute to reducing job burnout and standing at the level of both organizational justice, job burnout through the search for the problem through a group of questions centered on whether there is a correlation and influence between the research variables, and in light of this, a hypothetical model was built from which the main and sub-research hypotheses emerged. In order to test the validity of the hypotheses, data were collected through the questionnaire tool, which was prepared for this purpose, and the same was chosen for this purpose, represented by the size of 50 personnel working in (Samawah Municipality Directorate). The data were analyzed using a set of statistical methods and the results were extracted using the computer program SPSS. From their weak ability to influence, and the loss of meaningful action. Finally, the research presented a set of recommendations, which are necessary to reduce the state of job burnout felt by workers in the field of work, including the directorate’s management to take a new approach in strengthening organizational justice through fair treatment of workers, fairness in implementing administrative procedures and also on the directorate’s management to use methods modern management in reducing the state of separation of workers from their work by empowering workers, re-engineering human resources, redesigning the organizational structure, and promoting the introduction of technology in work.

KEYWORDS

Organizational justice, Job burnout, Municipality of Samawah

INTRODUCTION

Organizational justice has emerged as a new psychosocial predictor of health at work (Brotheridge, 2003). Evidence proposes that employees who perceive organizational injustice experience negative feelings and mental distress (e.g., Elovainio et al., 2002). As is true in several areas of the organizational sciences, research on both organizational justice and employee well-being has usually been led at the individual level of analysis. This is true even though other levels of analysis have received growing attention from scholars concerned with workplace performance (e.g., Bliese & Jex, 2002). Organizations’ structures are varying, and more individuals are working in team-based environments (Cropanzano & Schminke, 2001). To some degree, work unit associates share organizational justice perceptions, in addition to the consequences derived from perceived justice.
Despite these exceptions, we know of no studies that have examined the links between organizational justice and job burnout at work using organizational levels beyond the individual. This is a significant omission because, as we shall see, there are significant reasons why higher-level organizational justice should affect well-being at work. Given this situation, the current examination transfers the study of the link among organizational justice and job burnout. The focused-on burnout as a critical measure of well-being at work (e.g., Maslach et al., 2001; Tummers et al., 2002). In addition, contact employees should show positive emotional labor characterized by special attention to the customer. This interactional situation often implies high emotional requirements that influence workers’ well-being (Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002).
While the existence of shared perceptions of organizational justice or justice climate is well-recognized, limited researchers have begun to study its effects (Simons et al., 2003). Naumann and Bennett (2000) introduced the concept of group-level procedural justice. These authors found high levels of consensus between individuals who worked in the same team. These shared perceptions, in turn, predicted individual helping behaviors. In addition, Simons and Roberson (2003) observed important effects of aggregated justice perceptions on employee turnover intentions and customer satisfaction. There are limited studies on the link between organizational justice on the job burnout. Therefore, the present studies examine this association.

PROBLEM STATEMENT


The research problem can be formulated through the following main question:
What is the role of organizational justice for senior management in avoiding burnout of workers?
As for the research sub-questions, they were:
1- What is the reality of organizational justice for higher management in (Samawah Municipality Directorate)?
2- What is the relative importance of organizational justice from the point of view of workers in (Samawah Municipality Directorate)?
3- What is the level of job burnout in (Samawah Municipality Directorate)?
4- What is the form and nature of the relationship between organizational justice and the level of job burnout in (Samawah Municipality Directorate)?
5- What is the effect of organizational justice (by removing it) on the level of employee burnout (Samawah Municipality Directorate)?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH

Organizational justice is an important topic in the administrative fields, as it reduces conflicts within the organization, also reduces work pressures in the organization and highlights the importance of research in two main aspects (yuengo & wong, 2004):
A. Applied importance: The research attempt to measure, test, and diagnose the reality of organizational justice and its role in reducing job burnout for workers in the field of work (Samawah Municipality Directorate) as a true measure of the health and safety of senior management in (Samawah Municipality Directorate) and its workers due to the effect of each of them on human resources and thus the impact on productivity and performance of the organization as a whole.
B. The importance at the level of (Samawah Municipality Directorate): The importance of research for the researched organization enhances the employment of organizational justice for the higher management in applying appropriate practices and decisions to achieve justice in organizations, building and strengthening trust between the administration and its workers and those dealing with it, and creating an appropriate work environment that contributes to reducing negative phenomena and unhealthy and psychological states, including the phenomenon of job burnout. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The research seeks to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Knowing the level of application of the foundations of organizational justice by the higher management in (Samawah Municipality Directorate).
  2. Knowing the appropriateness of the methods used by the senior management of the Samawah Municipality in applying organizational justice.
  3. Knowing the level of job burnout for workers in (Samawah Municipality Directorate).
  4. Disclosure of the nature of the relationship between organizational justice, combustion and employment.
  5. Presenting a set of recommendations and proposals to senior management to support the perceptions of organizational justice and its potential to avoid job burnout and its damages in the future.

Hypothetical Model

Figure 1. Hypothesis Research Scheme
Source: The author’s preparation

RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The research hypotheses were formulated according to the problem, objectives, and outline of the research, as follows:

Ho1: No significant effect of distributive justice on job burnout.

Ha1: There is a statistically significant effect of distributional justice on job burnout.

Ho2: Procedural justice had no significant effect on job burnout.

Ha2: There is a statistically significant effect of procedural justice on job burnout.

Ho3: Reactive justice does not have a significant effect on job burnout.

Ha3: There is a statistically significant effect of reactive justice on job burnout.

The theoretical framework

First: The concept of organizational justice

In these days and in a world, that is witnessing high competition, the management of organizations needs employees to perform beyond the traditional job description or official duties as a source of organizational influence, especially the emergence of smart organizations, which increased this competition.

Organizational justice shows the system of social, ethical and religious values ​​among workers and determines the methods of interaction and moral maturity of the workers in the organization (Al-Fahdawi & Al-Qatawneh, 2004, p.15, & Abdullah, Ahmad-Zaluki, & Abd Rahim, 2021). In this regard, (Greenberg, 1990, p. 582) defines organizational justice as a concept that refers to the employees ’perception of the extent to which they are treated fairly in the organization, and how this perception has an impact “on organizational results such as commitment and job satisfaction” (Tatum, 2008, p. 297) defines it as Workers sense of fair treatment in their jobs and the impact of this on many organizational outcomes. Through presenting the concept of organizational justice for many points of view, it was revealed that there is near-consensus that this concept means fair treatment received by the worker by the higher management, whether in the form of the distribution of wages and rewards, or in the form of fairness of the procedures applied in the distribution of wages, or fair treatment on the personal level, or the information, or the fairness of evaluating the worker’s performance (Al-Zubaidi, 2012, p. 55).

Brockner has indicated that the importance of organizational justice is due to two reasons:

1. Employees use the perception of current justice in the organization to predict what they will deal with in the future.

2. The workers are trying to realize that they are part of the organization, and the existence of justice is an indicator of the extent of their acceptance and appreciation on the part of the organization’s management (Brockner, 2002, p. 59).  

Organizational justice has an impact on human feelings generated by the injustices that individuals may feel in the organization. Many writers have indicated that the feelings of anger that individuals may feel may be the result of organizational decisions or unfair administrative behaviors. Individuals who face injustice often they are violent and hard-tempered, as well as the possibility of creating other feelings such as aggression, revenge, guilt, shame, and withdrawal, as a result of weak dimensions of justice in the organization. (Al-Shakurji, 2008, p. 38).

DIMENSIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE

Distributive Justice

Distributive justice developed by Adams 1965 (Farahbod, 2012, p. 394). Organizational justice is called distributive justice because it works to grant allocations to some or obtain some results without others, and distributive justice is concerned with the fact that not all workers are treated at the same level, and the distinction in the distribution of results in the workplace (Cropanzano, 2007, p. 37), and that justice the distribution system shows in the organization the reality of the distribution system of salaries and wages, that is, the extent to which the higher management has followed a fair system for the distribution of wages and rewards commensurate with the effort and time spent by the worker (Al-Fahdawi & Al-Qatawneh, 2004). Employees ’perception of distributive justice is done by comparing the percentage of inputs they receive that are equal to the inputs and outputs of another worker. It determines workers’ perception about promotion, wages paid, and similar results. (Hooshmand & Moghimi, 2011 & Abdullah, Ahmad-Zaluki, & Abd Rahim, 2019).

Procedural Justice

Procedural justice is an important resource in social exchange, and procedural justice gains importance for workers because it is concerned with making decisions about the distribution of outcomes, which confirms to them the possibility of justice in long-term outcomes, which contributes to their sense of self-worth (Paterson et al., 2002). Both (Fahdawi & Qatawneh, 2004) defined it as the degree of feeling generated among workers towards the fairness of the organizational procedures used in determining the organizational outputs.

(Dolan et al., 2004, Kadim, Sabti, Ali, & Shliot, 2021) believes that it is the fairness of the procedures followed in determining the distribution of results or allocations. It explains procedural justice to equality in the formal procedures that underpin the decisions of the organization in terms of their relevance to the teachers (Asgari et al., 2008). Studies show that unfair decision-making processes are associated with many negative behavioral outcomes, such as low performance of the organization as a whole, lack of job satisfaction, and decreased organizational affiliation (Awad, 2003).

Interactive justice

Reactive justice is the third dimension of organizational justice, and it means the employees’ sense of the fairness of the treatment they receive when formal procedures are applied to them (Al-Sukkar, 2013). There is a direct link to interactive justice with the human aspect of organizational practices, while distributive and procedural justice is concerned with the work of the organization. Interactive justice focuses on the behavior of individuals and personal contact with them by the higher management of the organization in contrast to the distributive and procedural justice (Johnson, 2007, p. 30). Reactive justice is the personal treatment that the worker receives from the direct official. Reactive justice is defined as the way the administration treats the recipient of justice related to the human character and organizational practices (Hooshmand & Moghimi, 2011; Shabbir et al., 2018). Whereas, Robert and Angelo (2001) see it as the degree to which the worker feels fairness in the human treatment he gets when applying the procedures.

Both (Hooshmand & Moghimi, 2011, p. 555) explained that reactive justice includes two main aspects:

  1. Fair treatment of employees by higher management.
  2. Provide employees with an adequate explanation of the decisions they are affected by.

The precedents of fair treatment are summarized by relying on four rules that control fair treatment:

  1. Truthfulness: Management must be open, honest and upfront when implementing    decision-making procedures.
  2. Justification: Management must provide appropriate explanations for the results of the decision process.
  3. Propriety: Staying away from inappropriate words and phrases.
  4. Respect: The administration must treat individuals with respect and dignity (Al-Shakurji, 2008, p. 51).

The concept of Job Burnout

In the field of work, many obstacles appear that cause the worker not to fully perform his role, which makes him feel incapable of providing the work required of him with the capacity that he possesses and is expected by others, and when this occurs, the relationship that binds the worker to work is negative and has devastating effects on the professional work as a whole, and this leads feeling of shortfall with exhaustion of effort into a state of exhaustion and emotional exhaustion, which can be defined as job burnout, researchers have been interested in recent years, combustion is one of the most popular research topics in occupational mental health and there is a good reason for this research has convincingly shown that workers exposed to the risk of burnout i.e. those who are exhausted chronically, they take a cynical negative attitude towards work appear poor job performance and may face serious health problems over a period of time, and once workers suffer high levels of fatigue, they often continue to have the condition in reality, and research indicates that the burnout state can be Moderately stable, over periods of five, ten, or even fifteen years (Bakker & Costa, 2014; Chalab, 2015).

Burnout is an umbrella term used to describe signs of emotional stress and cynicism that occur in response to stressors and strains in professional life in origin (Hogan & McKinght, 2007, p.117).

2- Signs of job burnout: Behavioral and administrative literature tends to consider the professions of contact with people as the most common occupations that cause job burnout, as it has been shown that they abound in environments in which dealing with people, which requires direct confrontation, or an accurate understanding of people’s opinions and attitudes, and is considered a basic criterion in Evaluating the work of workers in these professions (Schanfeli & Greenkiss, 2000., p. 58).

The study (Al-Khatib, 2007, p. 12) summarized the signs of job burnout:

  1. Emotional psychological signs: These are psychological and nervous exhaustion, feelings of dissatisfaction and impotence, distress, tension and anger, a tendency to justify, default and blame others for it, low morale, and a lack of ability to remember and forget.
  2. Physical signs: These are physical exhaustion, psychological isolation, headache, and high blood pressure.
  3. Social signs: These are problems in social relations with others, suppressing feelings, unwillingness to talk to others, and social isolation.
  4. Signs related to work: These are negative trends towards work, indifference, absence, delay, desire to leave work, lack of creativity, boredom at work, and poor willingness to deal with work pressures.

Many studies have concluded that job burnout has three main effects, which we summarize as follows (Marcella, 2007, p. 26):

  1. Feeling of emotional and physical exhaustion: which is usually from the increase in psychological, emotional and biological demands on those responsible for serving others and the use of the term burnout reflects one of the important points of job burnout, which summarizes that feelings of job burnout are more likely to occur to those who are more immersed in their work and who are more in contact with many from individuals.
  2. Feeling of shortcomings in the level of personal accomplishments, which is represented by the failure to achieve the measure of achievements commensurate with personal aspirations, because there is not enough free time to achieve this, given the deep preoccupation with work demands.
  3. The negative attitude towards oneself and towards others, and the tendency to treat others such as treating things, for example using physical slogans such as using office numbers instead of using personal names for those individuals who are dealing with them, and this leads to a decrease in the emotional sense of work when dealing with others.

DIMENSIONS OF JOB BURNOUT

Emotional Exhaustion

It is the worker’s loss of self-confidence and morale, his loss of interest and care for the beneficiaries of the service, his exhaustion of all his energies, and his feeling that his emotional resources are depleted. This feeling of emotional exhaustion may be accompanied by a feeling of frustration and psychological distress, when the worker feels that he has not been able to continue to perform his responsibilities towards the beneficiaries at the same level that he previously provided. A common feature of emotional exhaustion is that the worker feels dread when thinking about going to work every morning. This emotional exhaustion of workers usually occurs due to excessive psychological and emotional requirements on the part of the recipients of the service. The term emotional burnout reflects an important basic assumption for combustion researchers. Burn marks are largely related to job holders whose work requires a major immersion in work. It also assumes a state of prior alertness, as opposed to the boredom felt by those in jobs whose work is monotonic or bored (Maslach & Jackson, 1981, p.109).

Depersonalization

It is the feeling of low personal achievement, which is characterized by a tendency towards negative self-evaluation, and individuals’ feeling of failure through it, and their low sense of competence in successfully completing work or their interaction with others, and this occurs in the event that the worker feels a loss of personal commitment in work relationships, and the purposes of this are the distance in the teacher’s feelings that he constantly expected disciplinary punishments by his boss, or in the feeling as if the individual was in a ship that sinks in the middle of the sea and crashes in every direction (Cords & Dougherty, 1993, p. 623). This element was presented by both Maslack and Jackson not with a little interest among researchers. But studies related to a lack of motivation in performing the work show that cases in which individuals ’attempts consistently fail to produce positive results, result in signs of stress and depression, and when individuals believe that their efforts will not have an effective result, they give up their attempts.

Lack of Personal Accomplishment

It means the loss of the human or personal element in dealing, which is represented in their tendency to depersonalize the beneficiaries who deal with them, whether these beneficiaries are from within or outside the organization, and it means the loss of the human or personal element in dealing with individuals as objects and not as human beings, and in this case. The worker is characterized by cruelty, pessimism, a lot of criticism, and blaming his colleagues at work, as well as the beneficiaries and the organization, and the worker in this case is characterized by coldness, indifference, negative feeling towards the beneficiaries of the service, and the lack of care for them. It is also reflected in his philosophy of the different positions at work, and in withdrawal by resorting to long periods of rest, or to meet and talk to colleagues for long periods, as well as the excessive use of technical terms for work, and is used as a defense to reduce the feeling of guilt and frustration resulting from work. Medium levels of loss of the human or personal element in dealing with beneficiaries are appropriate and necessary for effective performance in some functions (Maslach & Pines, 1977, p. 107).

In what he sees (Al-Zahrani, 2008, p. 36) from the psychological point of view, job burnout is nothing but a reflection or reaction to the improbable working conditions, and the process begins when the worker complains about pressure or stress of the kind that cannot be reduced or eliminated through a solution method problems, changes in attitudes, and types of behavior associated with psychological burnout lead to psychological flight and protect the individual from the deterioration of his condition to worse in terms of stress. Besides, the following effects of this phenomenon can be counted.

  1. Reduce the sense of responsibility.
  2. The relationship with the beneficiary is characterized by a psychological dimension.
  3. Exhaustion of psychological energy.
  4. Abandonment of ideals and the rule of negativity in the person.
  5. Blaming others for failure.
  6. Reduced performance effectiveness.
  7. Increased absenteeism at work and job instability.

Description Sample

The research sample was intentionally chosen, to seek the opinion of those involved in the relationship and workers in the administrative work sector in the Municipality of Samawah. Fifty-four questionnaires were distributed to specialists, four questionnaires were excluded for lack of completeness, and thus the research sample becomes 50 individuals.

ANALYZING RESULTS OF QUESTIONNAIRE

The results of the questionnaire that was conducted were unpacked, in the form of frequencies and percentages in the statistical program (SPSS). Reliability and dispersion indicators (Std.) will be extracted for the results of the questionnaire, as follows:

Reliability

After extracting the coefficient of stability (Cronbach’s Alpha) for the data, it became clear that the measuring instrument has a good degree of stability. The stability coefficient for all axes reached a positive result, ranging from 0.5 to 1.

Table 1
Validity and Reliability Factor of the Research Variables

 VariablesCronbach’s Alpha
XDistributive justice0.634
YProcedural justice0. 780
EInteractive justice0.563
KEmotional stress0.532
MPersonal achievement0.817
BCharacter abolition0.740
Mean & Std. Deviation

Table (2) Measuring the dispersion of the research variables
Descriptive Statistics

Measuring the Dispersion of the Research Variables

Descriptive Statistics
VariablesDirectionMinMaxMeanStd. Deviation
x1Agreed143.1001.008
x2Agreed153.4500.904
x3Agreed153.1500.975
x4Agreed153.3251.023
x5Agreed153.1251.137
x6Neutral152.9751.025
y1Neutral152.8751.090
y2Neutral152.9750.974
y3Agreed153.1250.939
y4Agreed253.2500.927
y5Neutral142.9500.815
e1Agreed153.3250.944
e2Agreed153.6251.148
e3Neutral152.9751.165
e4Agreed153.5001.132
e5Agreed153.4250.984
e6Agreed153.4751.037
k1Agreed153.1751.196
k2Agreed153.6750.997
k3Agreed153.1251.265
k4Agreed1423.9006.283
k5Neutral152.5751.259
k6Neutral152.6251.213
k7Strongly Agree254.1000.871
k8Agreed153.0001.132
k9Neutral152.4751.219
m1Agreed253.5750.903
m2Strongly Agree254.0250.698
m3Strongly Agree254.2750.751
m4Agreed253.8500.949
m5Agreed153.8001.091
m6Agreed253.8250.958
m7Strongly Agree154.0000.987
b1Neutral152.0500.876
b2Neutral152.0251.025
b3Neutral152.2000.883
b4Strongly Agree142.1750.874
b5Neutral152.5251.062
Valid N40    
(list wise)

Statistical tests
The first hypothesis:
Ho1: No significant effect of distributive justice on job burnout.
Ha1: There is a statistically significant effect of distributional justice on job burnout.

Table 3
Model Summary

ModelRR SquareAdjusted R SquareStd. Error of the Estimate
10.400a0.1600.1381.268
a. Predictors: (Constant), XXX
    1ModelSum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig
Regression11.602111.6027.2180.011a
Residual61.080381.607  
Total72.68339   
a. Predictors: (Constant), XXX
b. Dependent Variable: KMB
ModelUnstandardizedStandardized CoefficientstSig.
Coefficients
BStd. ErrorBeta
1(Constant)12.1691.092 11.1450
XXX-0.905-0.337-0.400--2.687-0.011

ANOVAb

Sum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig. 
11.602111.6027.2180.011a 
61.080381.607   
72.68339    
  Coefficientsa
ModelUnstandardized CoefficientsStandardized CoefficientstSig.
BStd. ErrorBeta
1(Constant)12.1691.092 11.1450.000
XXX-0.905-0.337-0.400--2.687-0.011
    
a. Dependent Variable: KMB

It was found from the tables above that the value of the double correlation coefficient is (0.400), and the coefficient of determination was (0.160), which means that (16%) approximately of the change in job combustion is due to the change in distributive justice, and where the calculated value of (F) is equal to ( 7.218) which is greater than its tabular value, and since the level of significance is equal to (0.011) which is less than (0.05) the approved level of significance, we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis that there is a significant effect of distributive justice on job burnout. The second hypothesis:
Ho2: Procedural justice had no significant effect on job burnout.
Ha2: There is a significant effect of statistically significant effect of procedural justice on job burnout.

Table 4
Model Summary

ModelRR SquareAdjusted R SquareStd. Error of the Estimate
10.207a0.0430.0181.353
a. Predictors: (Constant), YYY

ANOVAb

ModelSum of SquaresdfMean SquareF            Sig.
            1Regression3.11513.1151.701            0.200a
Residual69.568381.831  
Total72.68339   
a. Predictors: (Constant), YYY
b. Dependent Variable: KMB

Coefficientsa

ModelUnstandardized CoefficientsStandardized Coefficientst             Sig.
BStd. Error         Beta
          1    (Constant)11.4741.691 6.784            0.000
YYY-0.721-0.553–          0.207--1.304-            0.200
a. Dependent Variable: KMB

It was found from the tables above that the value of the double correlation coefficient (0.207), and the coefficient of determination was (0.043), which means that (4%) approximately of the change in job combustion is due to the change in procedural justice, and since the calculated value of (F) is equal to ( 1.701) which is smaller than its tabular value, and since the level of significance is equal to (0.200) which is greater than (0.05) the approved level of significance, we accept the null hypothesis and reject the alternative hypothesis that there is a significant significant effect of procedural justice on job burnout. The third hypothesis:
Ho3: Reactive justice does not have a significant effect on job burnout.
Ha3: There is a statistically significant effect of reactive justice on job burnout.

Table 5
Model Summary

ModelRR SquareAdjusted R SquareStd. Error of the Estimate
10.194a0.0380.0121.357
a. Predictors: (Constant), EEE

ANOVAb

ModelSum of Squares       dfMean Square         F           Sig.
Regression2.732       12.732        1.484          0.231a 
Residual69.950      381.841   
Total72.683      39    
a. Predictors: (Constant), EEE
b. Dependent Variable: KMB

Coefficientsa

ModelUnstandardized CoefficientsStandardized Coefficients       t           Sig.
        B        Std. Error    Beta
1(Constant)       10.778        1.244        8.667        0.000
EEE       -0.441-        0.362    -0.194-       -1.218-        0.231
a. Dependent Variable: KMB

It was found from the tables above that the value of the double correlation coefficient (0.194), and the coefficient of determination was (0.038), which means that (3.8%) of the change in job combustion is approximately due to the change in reactive justice, and since the calculated value of (F) is equal to ( 1.484) which is smaller than its tabular value, and since the level of significance is equal to (0.231) which is greater than (0.05) the approved level of significance, we accept the null hypothesis and reject the alternative hypothesis that there is a significant significant effect of reactive justice on job burnout.

Table 6

Correlations Analysis

Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusions

  1. The Directorate’s management deals with a moderate degree of fairness, as it negatively affects the level of job burnout felt by its employees. The reactive justice dimension came first.
  2. The municipality administration is concerned with fairness in the distribution of wages, financial benefits, and rewards for workers and this arises many negative phenomena that affect the efficiency of work performance. Therefore, the procedural justice dimension came in second order.
  3. The employees ’feeling of fairness in the procedures for distributing wages and bonuses for workers is reduced, which would cause the worker to lose the performance evaluation criteria, and to separate the workers’ goals from the organization’s goals. The distributional justice dimension came in the third order.
  4. Samawah Municipality Directorate neglects employees who are distinguished in their performance. This is a dangerous indicator that the municipality administration uses, because that would kill the spirit of creativity and innovation.
  5. The senior management in the directorate neglects employees by not involving them in the decision-making and implementation process without having any participation or opinion.
  6. There is an inverse relationship between organizational justice in its three dimensions and job burnout, as the greater the degree of organizational justice, the less job burnout.

Recommendations

  1. The municipality administration should follow up on the fairness of treatment and ensure that all employees are treated with fairness and respect.
  2. The necessity of reconsideration by the municipality administration of the systems, rules and instructions followed in allocating and distributing its financial resources, by setting up a mechanism for the distribution of financial and moral incentives.
  3. The municipality administration has the main role in implanting a team spirit and cooperation in work that reduces the isolation that workers suffer from.
  4. The necessity of setting fixed standards for each department in the municipality to work so that the worker can, through these criteria, evaluate his performance and know his duties and rights.
  5. The municipality administration must take care to involve all workers in making decisions that affect their work, which will contribute to making these decisions more effective.
  6. The necessity of placing the right person in the right place, as the more the administration is able to provide suitable cadres with the necessary capabilities and capabilities, the lower the degree of job burnout.

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