A Research on Level of Loneliness Among Female and Male Students Studying Professional Courses

South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
Year: 2021 (Apr), Volume: 2, Issue. (2)
First page: (79) Last page: (85)
Online ISSN: 2582-7065
doi: 10.48165/sajssh.2021.2207

A Research on Level of Loneliness Among Female and Male Students Studying Professional Courses

Km Pratima1 and Dr. Manju Mahananda2

1,2Human Development and Family Studies, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, India

Corresponding Author: Km Pratima, E-mail: pratimakm07@gmail.com

Online Published: 10-April-2021

Received: 4th December 2020

Accepted: 21st March 2021

How to cite the Article

Pratima, K., & Mahananda, M. (2021). A Research on Level of Loneliness Among Female and Male Students Studying Professional Courses. South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2(2), 79–85. https://doi.org/10.48165/sajssh.2021.2207 Cite
Pratima, Km, and Manju Mahananda. “A Research on Level of Loneliness Among Female and Male Students Studying Professional Courses.” South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, vol. 2, no. 2, 2021, pp. 79–85, http://doi.org/10.48165/sajssh.2021.2207. Cite
Pratima K, Mahananda M. A Research on Level of Loneliness Among Female and Male Students Studying Professional Courses. SAJSSH. 2021;2(2):79‑85. DOI: 10.48165/sajssh.2021.2207 Cite
View on Google Scholar


The aim of this study was to analyze the level of loneliness among females and males studying professional courses. We measured the Level of Loneliness between female and male university students studying professional courses (N=80). Professional courses pursuing women and men were between the age group of 19-22 years. Results reveals that females pursuing professional courses were more in number in the high loneliness category when compared to professional courses pursuing males, which is significantly related to loneliness. This result supports the belief that family and society play an integral role in defining and influencing the profession, and that loneliness is indirectly connected to relationships. Finally, correlation analysis indicated positively between youth: female and male. It is proposed that daily therapy should generally be given to professional young people who have issues with loneliness.


Loneliness; male; Professional course; Female


Loneliness is a huge issue in our culture. In culture, the physical component of loneliness is not inherently associated with loneliness but results from socially disconnected encounters. As students struggle to adjust to the changes and loss of some of their social support, loneliness may be exacerbated during college. Loneliness correlates negatively with self-esteem and self-rated physical attractiveness among college students (Stephan & Lamm, 1988; Suleman & Mohamed, 2019; Suleman, Mohamed & Ahmmed, 2020). Loneliness is a multifaceted disorder often described by an unpleasant, painful, anxious desire for another person or individual (Hartog & Cohen, 1980; Setiyorini, Prihatin & Santoso, 2021; Sehrawat & Roy, 2021).

College going students reports feeling solitude in stressful circumstances (Jones, Hansson, & Cutrona, 1984). In preparing themselves for potentially challenging interpersonal scenarios, students should also be taught to use their imagination. By practicing and applying relaxation techniques during stress-producing experiences, reducing anxiety levels can be easily achieved (Booth, 1985; France et al. 1984; Mallanhanse, Alias & Bidin, 2020). College learners who are lonely show limited and unfriendly modes of contact. They share less often in a non-normative way themselves (Mahon, 1982; Solano, & Parish; 1982). Specialists in family life may assist learners in discovering their personal reactions to loneliness.

The study of loneliness is an important first step in recognizing the emotions, beliefs, and behaviours that together cause distressing results. Any remedial solution to its reduction requires dealing with loneliness (Revenson, 1981).

When considering loneliness, however, one should be careful not to overestimate the role of personal and psychological factors relative to social factors, as this may encourage intervention approaches that only discuss the individual and not the individual’s context (de Jong Gierveld, 1987).

Preventing loneliness is crucial because when depression and learned helplessness surrounds it, remediation is more difficult. Furthermore, the fact that most loneliness students do not adhere to professional support, rather reinforces the need for preventive efforts (Rook & Peplau, 1982).

The experience of loneliness can be very harmful and foster a feeling of powerlessness (Booth, 1983). Accordingly, prevention endeavor must not only resolve the causes of loneliness, but it is also one of the complex issues of concomitant stress and loss of control. Why young adults coming into the mainstream of life cycle operations feel lonely, therefore it is not sure.

Weiss (1973, 1980) has suggested that the primary developmental function of young adulthood is to relinquish parental attachments and build new attachments to peers and peers of the same-sex or cross-sex community and to cause feelings of alienation by thwarting this process.

In general, we hypothesized that the notion of segregation would differ by gender, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Specifically, for standard self-report indices of loneliness, these males were found lonelier than females.

We also hypothesized that loneliness for men would be more closely associated with negative self-functioning (e.g., weak obligation, poor self-importance) than for women.

We expected that women would be more likely to worry about being lonely than men, more likely to feel anxious and depressed when they were lonely, and to be negatively reactive to loneliness with decreased ratings of life satisfaction. Finally, we anticipated that certain social risk-taking skills, especially those engaged in initiating social interaction would be important for gender differences in loneliness. Therefore, to find the relationship between to major components of youth the present study was planned with the following objectives: to assess the level of loneliness among female and male studying professional courses.


  1. Participants

The participants were 80 college going students (40 male, 40 female) enrolled in professional (B.Tech. civil engineering and B.Tech. computer science) courses at the Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Science and United College of Engineering and Technology at Prayagraj UP – 211007. The mean age of the respondents was 20.4 years ranging from 19-22 years and a standard deviation of 1.21 years.

2. Measures

Loneliness inventory scale questionnaire (Uma and Meenakshi. R., 2008) The Loneliness inventory scale target populations were college going students (19) statements. In the sense of space and time, they reflect a feeling of loneliness in everyday life. There is no time limit. Ordinarily, it is completed within 15’minute. This inventory can be administered as a group test or as well as an individual test. This scale consists of 19 statements, 12 positive statements, and seven negative statements. Loneliness inventory scale items are rated on a five-point Likert-type scale.

The keyed response is for positive comment, one mark to never, two scores to rarely, three marks to sometimes, four marks for many times and five marks of always responses are assigned. For negative statements, five marks to never, four marks to rarely, three marks sometimes, two marks to many times and one mark to always.


Participants who were studying in professional courses belong to the B.Tech. Civil engineering branch and B.Tech. Computer science branch from the two different colleges. They completed all the credentials in questionnaire in the first session. In 15’minute sessions, Confidentiality was established by respondents in a large class, sitting separately from each other. Moreover, during the 15’minute sessions, two assistants were present.


Table 1 summarizes the loneliness frequency and percentage between the male and female studying in professional courses at different level. Since gender has been shown to be linked to sections of each of three measures: A high level of loneliness, the average level of loneliness and the low level of loneliness, the disparity between male and female. In these studies, the effects of gender were partly highlighted. For example, professional courses pursuing females reported higher levels of loneliness. Higher levels of loneliness were higher in females than in males. Results for the other two categories: females were in the high loneliness category in the average category and male were in a high loneliness category rather than females in a low category.

Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution levels of loneliness between female and male studying professional courses

Level of LonelinessProfessional student N=80
male  n= 40female n=40
High Loneliness (HL)20502152.5
Average  Loneliness (AL)10251127.5
Low Loneliness (LL)1025820

Table 2: Comparison and correlation of loneliness between female and male studying professional courses

CategoryMeanSDDifference  in meant (calculated) valuet (tabulated) valuer  (value)
Professional male70.529.03711.432.036*1.9900.82
Professional female59.0720.391


Table 2 shows that mean, standard deviation, t-test and correlation for all the variables in professional courses. Males display greater loneliness in the mean value than females. The correlation between males and females pursuing professional courses: males indicate positive effects in comparison to that of females.

With regards to studies using the loneliness inventory scale showed a statistically significant gender effect. In these “cases however” a male had higher loneliness scores.

Table 1 demonstrate that it is evident from the above table that maximum 52.5 percent of female respondents were having a high level of loneliness followed by the middle level of loneliness – 27.5 percent and low level of loneliness 20 percent in professional courses. Whereas 50 percent of male respondents were having a high level of loneliness followed by, middle level of loneliness 25 percent and low level of loneliness 25 percent in professional courses.

The table 2 shows that the difference between the mean score in loneliness scored by the male and female respondents is 11.43 and t calculated value is 2.036 and t tabulated is 1.990 at 0.05’percent probability, therefore there exist a significant difference between the loneliness pattern of female and male studying professional courses signifying that professional courses pursuing a male experienced more loneliness as compared to professional courses pursuing female counterparts. The table 2 reveals that loneliness was correlated positively in the case of male respondents studying professional courses 0.82.

The goal of the current research was to examine the relationship between female and male  levels of loneliness, that the present study offers much needed empirical evidence on the experience of adolescent loneliness. Moore and Schultz (1983) identified in his survey that the female is more prone to loneliness than a male.

The results showed that there were significant differences in coping methods according to gender (male/female) and loneliness levels (low/high). The dominant gender effect has shown that male students use more confidence, expectation, and hopelessness than female students. Cecen (2008).

This indicates that men can attribute loneliness to their deficiencies, while women may see loneliness as a result of external and uncontrollable situations. (Hochschild, 1983; Rubin et al., 1981).

The findings of the study are in accordance with the findings that suggested the admission of loneliness can be influenced by social pressures, whereby “men who show symptoms of loneliness can be seen more negatively than women who show the same symptoms” Borys and Perlman (1985).

The findings of the study are in accordance with the findings of loneliness found positive correlations between psychological symptoms and loneliness between loneliness and physical symptoms. The reason for the above results could be that average, and low loneliness youth are compared less than high loneliness youth Hansell and Mechanic (1985).


Our findings provide more evidence for the level of loneliness that males are lonelier than females in professional courses. Many adolescents enter the workforce directly from college, or undergo other training. Furthermore, feelings of loneliness are only one aspect of psycho-social adaptation. The results support our argument that men are emotionally susceptible to loneliness, and there is some evidence that social risk-taking skills may contribute to gender differences in loneliness.


Booth, R. (1983). Toward an understanding of loneliness. Social Work, 28, 116-119. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/28.2.116

Booth, R. (1985). Loneliness and abstraction level of college students. Journal of College Student Personnel, 26, 204-209.  https://doi.org/10.2307/584881

Borys, S., & Perlman, D. (1985). Gender differences in loneliness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin11(1), 63-74. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167285111006

De Jong Gierveld, J. (1987). Developing and testing a model of loneliness. Journal of Psychology and Social Psychology, 53(1), 119–128. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.53.1.119

Hartog, J., Audy, J., & Cohen, Y. (Eds.). (1980). The anatomy of loneliness. New York: International Universities Press.

Hecht, D. T., & Baum, S. K. (1984). Loneliness and attachment patterns in young adults. Journal of Clinical Psychology40(1), 193-197. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679

Jones, W. H., Hansson, R. O., & Cutrona, C. E. (1984). Helping the lonely: Issues of intervention with young and older adults. Personal relationships5, 143-162 In S. Duck (Ed.), Personal relationships 5: Repairing personal relationships (pp. 143-162). London: Academic Press.

Mahon, N. E. (1982). The relationship of self-disclosure, interpersonal dependency, and life changes to loneliness in young adults. Nursing Research, 31, 343-347. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1097/00006199-198211000-00005

Mallanhanse, A. K., Alias, N. F., & Bidin, S. S. N. B. A. (2020). Peer Acceptance among Learning Disabilities (LD) and Mainstream Students in Inclusive Classroom in a Primary School. South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities1(2), 16-25.

Revenson, T. (1981). Coping with loneliness: The impact of causal attributions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 565-571 https://doi.org/10.1177/014616728174007

Rook, K., & Peplau, L. (1982). Perspectives on helping the lonely. In L. Peplau & D. Perlman (Eds.), Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research, and therapy (pp. 351-378). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Schultz Jr, N. R., & Moore, D. (1986). The loneliness experience of college students: Sex differences. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin12(1),111-119. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167286121011

Sehrawat, M., & Roy, M. M. (2021). Expected roles and functions of the school management committee: An investigation for effective functioning. South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities02(01), 79–92.

Setiyorini, F. A., Prihatin, Y., & Edi Santoso, M. (2021). A narrative inquiry: Students perception in increasing teachers’ identity by join microteaching. South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities02(01), 49–62.

Stephan, E., Fäth, M., & Lamm, H. (1988). Loneliness as related to various personality and environmental measures: Research with the German adaptation of the UCLA loneliness scale. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 16, 169–174. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.1988.16.2.169

Suleman, D., & Mohamed, A. H. (2019). Examining the Women Issues and Child Abuse as Mirrored by Arundhati Roy’s The God of Small Things. Indonesian Journal of Cultural and Community Development, 3, 10-21070.

Suleman, D., Mohamed, A. H., & Ahmmed, M. F. (2020). Political and Gender issues in Arundhati Roy’s” The Ministry of Utmost Happiness”. Indonesian Journal of Cultural and Community Development, 5, 10-21070.