South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Year: 2021 (Apr), Volume: 2, Issue. (2) First page: (79) Last page: (85) Online ISSN: 2582-7065 doi: 10.48165/sajssh.2021.2207
A Research on Level of Loneliness Among Female and Male Students Studying Professional Courses
Km Pratima1 and Dr. Manju Mahananda2
1,2Human Development and Family Studies, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, India
Corresponding Author: Km Pratima, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Online Published: 10-April-2021
Received: 4th December 2020
Accepted: 21st March 2021
How to cite the Article
The aim of this study was to analyze the level of loneliness among females and males studying professional courses. We measured the Level of Loneliness between female and male university students studying professional courses (N=80). Professional courses pursuing women and men were between the age group of 19-22 years. Results reveals that females pursuing professional courses were more in number in the high loneliness category when compared to professional courses pursuing males, which is significantly related to loneliness. This result supports the belief that family and society play an integral role in defining and influencing the profession, and that loneliness is indirectly connected to relationships. Finally, correlation analysis indicated positively between youth: female and male. It is proposed that daily therapy should generally be given to professional young people who have issues with loneliness.
Loneliness; male; Professional course; Female
Loneliness is a huge issue in our culture. In culture, the physical component of loneliness is not inherently associated with loneliness but results from socially disconnected encounters. As students struggle to adjust to the changes and loss of some of their social support, loneliness may be exacerbated during college. Loneliness correlates negatively with self-esteem and self-rated physical attractiveness among college students (Stephan & Lamm, 1988; Suleman & Mohamed, 2019; Suleman, Mohamed & Ahmmed, 2020). Loneliness is a multifaceted disorder often described by an unpleasant, painful, anxious desire for another person or individual (Hartog & Cohen, 1980; Setiyorini, Prihatin & Santoso, 2021; Sehrawat & Roy, 2021).
College going students reports feeling solitude in stressful circumstances (Jones, Hansson, & Cutrona, 1984). In preparing themselves for potentially challenging interpersonal scenarios, students should also be taught to use their imagination. By practicing and applying relaxation techniques during stress-producing experiences, reducing anxiety levels can be easily achieved (Booth, 1985; France et al. 1984; Mallanhanse, Alias & Bidin, 2020). College learners who are lonely show limited and unfriendly modes of contact. They share less often in a non-normative way themselves (Mahon, 1982; Solano, & Parish; 1982). Specialists in family life may assist learners in discovering their personal reactions to loneliness.
The study of loneliness is an important first step in recognizing the emotions, beliefs, and behaviours that together cause distressing results. Any remedial solution to its reduction requires dealing with loneliness (Revenson, 1981).
When considering loneliness, however, one should be careful not to overestimate the role of personal and psychological factors relative to social factors, as this may encourage intervention approaches that only discuss the individual and not the individual’s context (de Jong Gierveld, 1987).
Preventing loneliness is crucial because when depression and learned helplessness surrounds it, remediation is more difficult. Furthermore, the fact that most loneliness students do not adhere to professional support, rather reinforces the need for preventive efforts (Rook & Peplau, 1982).
The experience of loneliness can be very harmful and foster a feeling of powerlessness (Booth, 1983). Accordingly, prevention endeavor must not only resolve the causes of loneliness, but it is also one of the complex issues of concomitant stress and loss of control. Why young adults coming into the mainstream of life cycle operations feel lonely, therefore it is not sure.
Weiss (1973, 1980) has suggested that the primary developmental function of young adulthood is to relinquish parental attachments and build new attachments to peers and peers of the same-sex or cross-sex community and to cause feelings of alienation by thwarting this process.
In general, we hypothesized that the notion of segregation would differ by gender, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Specifically, for standard self-report indices of loneliness, these males were found lonelier than females.
We also hypothesized that loneliness for men would be more closely associated with negative self-functioning (e.g., weak obligation, poor self-importance) than for women.
We expected that women would be more likely to worry about being lonely than men, more likely to feel anxious and depressed when they were lonely, and to be negatively reactive to loneliness with decreased ratings of life satisfaction. Finally, we anticipated that certain social risk-taking skills, especially those engaged in initiating social interaction would be important for gender differences in loneliness. Therefore, to find the relationship between to major components of youth the present study was planned with the following objectives: to assess the level of loneliness among female and male studying professional courses.
The participants were 80 college going students (40 male, 40 female) enrolled in professional (B.Tech. civil engineering and B.Tech. computer science) courses at the Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Science and United College of Engineering and Technology at Prayagraj UP – 211007. The mean age of the respondents was 20.4 years ranging from 19-22 years and a standard deviation of 1.21 years.
Loneliness inventory scale questionnaire (Uma and Meenakshi. R., 2008) The Loneliness inventory scale target populations were college going students (19) statements. In the sense of space and time, they reflect a feeling of loneliness in everyday life. There is no time limit. Ordinarily, it is completed within 15’minute. This inventory can be administered as a group test or as well as an individual test. This scale consists of 19 statements, 12 positive statements, and seven negative statements. Loneliness inventory scale items are rated on a five-point Likert-type scale.
The keyed response is for positive comment, one mark to never, two scores to rarely, three marks to sometimes, four marks for many times and five marks of always responses are assigned. For negative statements, five marks to never, four marks to rarely, three marks sometimes, two marks to many times and one mark to always.
Participants who were studying in professional courses belong to the B.Tech. Civil engineering branch and B.Tech. Computer science branch from the two different colleges. They completed all the credentials in questionnaire in the first session. In 15’minute sessions, Confidentiality was established by respondents in a large class, sitting separately from each other. Moreover, during the 15’minute sessions, two assistants were present.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Table 1 summarizes the loneliness frequency and percentage between the male and female studying in professional courses at different level. Since gender has been shown to be linked to sections of each of three measures: A high level of loneliness, the average level of loneliness and the low level of loneliness, the disparity between male and female. In these studies, the effects of gender were partly highlighted. For example, professional courses pursuing females reported higher levels of loneliness. Higher levels of loneliness were higher in females than in males. Results for the other two categories: females were in the high loneliness category in the average category and male were in a high loneliness category rather than females in a low category.
Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution levels of loneliness between female and male studying professional courses
|Level of Loneliness||Professional student N=80|
|male n= 40||female n=40|
|High Loneliness (HL)||20||50||21||52.5|
|Average Loneliness (AL)||10||25||11||27.5|
|Low Loneliness (LL)||10||25||8||20|
Table 2: Comparison and correlation of loneliness between female and male studying professional courses
|Category||Mean||SD||Difference in mean||t (calculated) value||t (tabulated) value||r (value)|
Table 2 shows that mean, standard deviation, t-test and correlation for all the variables in professional courses. Males display greater loneliness in the mean value than females. The correlation between males and females pursuing professional courses: males indicate positive effects in comparison to that of females.
With regards to studies using the loneliness inventory scale showed a statistically significant gender effect. In these “cases however” a male had higher loneliness scores.
Table 1 demonstrate that it is evident from the above table that maximum 52.5 percent of female respondents were having a high level of loneliness followed by the middle level of loneliness – 27.5 percent and low level of loneliness 20 percent in professional courses. Whereas 50 percent of male respondents were having a high level of loneliness followed by, middle level of loneliness 25 percent and low level of loneliness 25 percent in professional courses.
The table 2 shows that the difference between the mean score in loneliness scored by the male and female respondents is 11.43 and t calculated value is 2.036 and t tabulated is 1.990 at 0.05’percent probability, therefore there exist a significant difference between the loneliness pattern of female and male studying professional courses signifying that professional courses pursuing a male experienced more loneliness as compared to professional courses pursuing female counterparts. The table 2 reveals that loneliness was correlated positively in the case of male respondents studying professional courses 0.82.
The goal of the current research was to examine the relationship between female and male levels of loneliness, that the present study offers much needed empirical evidence on the experience of adolescent loneliness. Moore and Schultz (1983) identified in his survey that the female is more prone to loneliness than a male.
The results showed that there were significant differences in coping methods according to gender (male/female) and loneliness levels (low/high). The dominant gender effect has shown that male students use more confidence, expectation, and hopelessness than female students. Cecen (2008).
This indicates that men can attribute loneliness to their deficiencies, while women may see loneliness as a result of external and uncontrollable situations. (Hochschild, 1983; Rubin et al., 1981).
The findings of the study are in accordance with the findings that suggested the admission of loneliness can be influenced by social pressures, whereby “men who show symptoms of loneliness can be seen more negatively than women who show the same symptoms” Borys and Perlman (1985).
The findings of the study are in accordance with the findings of loneliness found positive correlations between psychological symptoms and loneliness between loneliness and physical symptoms. The reason for the above results could be that average, and low loneliness youth are compared less than high loneliness youth Hansell and Mechanic (1985).
Our findings provide more evidence for the level of loneliness that males are lonelier than females in professional courses. Many adolescents enter the workforce directly from college, or undergo other training. Furthermore, feelings of loneliness are only one aspect of psycho-social adaptation. The results support our argument that men are emotionally susceptible to loneliness, and there is some evidence that social risk-taking skills may contribute to gender differences in loneliness.
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