Publisher: ACS Publisher Journal of Agriculture and Allied fields First page: (61) Last page: (66) Year: (2019), Volume: (1), Issue. (1) Online ISSN: A/F doi:
Review on Integrated Pest Management in Muskmelon
Subject Matter Specialist (Horticulture) KVK, Banka
Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Online published on 02 Feb, 2019.
Rural women are the main producers of the world’s staple crops – rice, wheat, maize – which provide up to 90 percent of the rural poor’s food intake. Women sow, weed, apply fertilizer and pesticides, harvest and thresh the crops. Their contribution to secondary crop production, such as legumes and vegetables, is even greater. Grown mainly in home gardens, these crops provide essential nutrients and are often the only food available during the lean seasons or if the main harvest fails. Women’s specialized knowledge about genetic resources for food and agriculture makes them essential. In the livestock sector, women feed and milk the larger animals, while raising poultry and small animals such as sheep, goats, rabbits and guinea pigs. Also, once the harvest is in, rural women provide most of the labour for post-harvest activities, taking responsibility for storage, handling, stocking, processing and marketing An advisor to the Chennai-based M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), on education, communication and gender, she had conceived the idea and worked on developing such a curriculum since 1999. The agricultural universities, the ICAR or the research system, the Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK) the entire agricultural bureaucracy is gender insensitive. FAO studies demonstrate that while women in most developing countries are the mainstay of agricultural sectors, the farm labour force and food systems (and day-to-day family subsistence), they have been the last to benefit from – or in some cases have been negatively affected by – prevailing economic growth and development processes. Gender bias and gender blindness persist: farmers are still generally perceived as ‘male’ by policy-makers, development planners and agricultural service deliverers. For this reason, women find it more difficult than men to gain access to valuable resources such as land, credit and agricultural inputs, technology, extension, training and services that would enhance their production capacity. Images of rural India carry pictures of graceful women balancing fuel wood on their heads, or bent over double, weeding, transplanting, collecting forest produce, often with a baby slung over her back. But the reality is that of a backbreaking and endless cycle of work, invisible, unheard, and with no control over access to the means of production or the fruits of her labour. The rural woman’s lack of access to and control over resources, an increase in the daily vulnerabilities that arise from the outmigration of males into urban centre’s and into other professions, endemic poverty and her location in a deeply patriarchal society — all increasingly demand gender – sensitive policies in the agriculture sector (Mehta and Ghosh, 2004).
Rural women, gender mainstreaming, gender sensitization, women labour.