OPEN DEFECATION Global Reduction

Journal of Extension System
Year: 2019 (June), Volume: (35), Issue. (1)
First page: (??) Last page: (??)
Online ISSN: 2582-273X
Print ISSN: 0970-2989

Global Reduction

O. S. Verma

1School of Government , Universiti Utara Malaysia
2 School of International Studies , Universiti Utara Malaysia
3 School of Business Management , Universiti Utara Malaysia

Corresponding Author: Mohamad Ibrahim Hassan Mohamad Al Jasmi

Online Published:
3rd June 2019

13th January 2019

8th May 2019

How to cite the Article

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is images.png
View on Google Scholar


National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) conducted a Survey covering 73176 Indian Households living in 3788 villages and 41538 households living in 2907 Urban Blocks. Findings revealed that 52.1 per cent persons in rural areas and 7.5 per cent in urban defecate in open (see graphic table-1). Survey was conducted between July-2014 and June- 2015.In order to meet UN’s Sustainable Development goals, a massive improvement was needed in open defecation. India made strides with Swachh Bharat Programme providing added impetus in recent years. Launched in 2014, Swachh Bharat Mission has led to rapid reduction in open defecation especially in rural areas despite stiff resistance to having toilets in residential premises. Just 22 per cent of rural families had access to toilets in 2001. The sustained campaigns pushed through Swachh Bharat Programme, this figure touched 50 per cent by February-2016.