Indian Journal of Extension Education – author guidelines

Author Guidelines

Indian Journal of Extension Education is the official publication of Indian Society of Extension Education (ISEE), new Delhi. It publishes original research papers in the field of extension education and allied fields.

Submission of manuscript: Paper for publication should be submitted online on or at official website . The official email of the chief editor of the society is . Before submission of paper, it is strongly advised that it may be checked and edited by your coauthor(s), professional colleagues for its technical contents including grammatical and spelling correctness. The length of the manuscript should not exceed 12 typed pages (double space).
Submission of final manuscript: The submitted paper will be evaluated by the editorial members and referees for their suitability. The paper will be sent back to the author to carry out the changes or modifications as suggested by the referees and editorial member. Final manuscript has to be uploaded only through electronic form (as an attachment) through with an email to the following e-mail address: .
The manuscript should be arranged as follows: Title, running title, abstract, keyword, introduction, methodology, results and discussion, conclusion and references. Kindly check the recent issues at
Title Page: The names, current affiliation, complete address (place where work was conducted) including e-mail address of author(s), Present address(es) of author(s) if applicable; Complete correspondence address including email address to which the proofs should be sent (these should be given as footnote on first page). Do not use abbreviation or acronyms for designation of job, position and institution name. The title must be centered (16 point bold). The first letter of the every word of the title should be in upper case (Capital letter). All other letter should be in lower case (small letters). Example: Socio economic Impact of Self Help Groups.
Abstract: An abstract of about 150 to 200 words written in complete sentences. It should contain a very brief account of the materials, methods, results, discussion and conclusion, so that the reader need not refer to the whole article except for details. It should not have references to literature, illustrations and tables. The abstract should summarize pertinent results in a brief but understandable form. The abstract should start with a clear statement of the objectives of the experiment and must conclude with one or two sentences that highlight important conclusions.
Keywords: Provide a list of 5 to 8 keywords (indexing terms) that best describe the nature of the research after the abstract. The first letter of each keyword should be in upper case or capital letter. As major words in the title are not used in the subject index, appropriate words from the title (or synonyms) should be listed as key words.
The ‘INTRODUCTION’ part should be brief and limited to the statement of the importance of the study, problem or the aim of the experiment. It should briefly justify the research and specify the hypotheses to be tested. The review of literature should be pertinent to the problem. Objective of the study should be discussed in view of latest references. No trade name should be used and Industrial products should be referred to by their chemical names (give ingredients in parentheses) at first mention. In the absence of a common name, use the full name or a defined abbreviation, in preference to a trade name. Introduction should be between 450 to 500 words.
The’ METHODOLOGY’ should contain relevant details including experimental design and the techniques employed. Where the methods are well known, the citation of a standard work is sufficient. All modifications of procedures must be explained. Experimental materials and statistical models should be described clearly and fully. Calculations and the validity of deductions made from them should be checked and validated. Units of measurement, symbols and standard abbreviations should conform to international standards. Metric measurements are preferred, and dosages should be expressed entirely in metric units (SI units). Give the meaning of all symbols immediately after the equation in which they are first used. METHODOLOGY should be between 300 to 450 words. There must not be table and figures in methodology and subheadings be avoided as far as possible.
• The RESULTS AND DISCUSSION should preferably be combined to avoid repetition. Results should be presented in tabular form and graphs when feasible but not both. The colour figures and plates are printed when information would be lost if reproduced in black and white. Mean result with the relevant standard errors should be presented rather than detailed data. The data should be so arranged that the tables would fit in the normal layout of the page. Self-explanatory tables should be typed on separate sheets and carry appropriate titles. The tabular matter should not exceed 20% of the text. Any abbreviation used in a table must be defined in that table. All tables should be cited in the text. If an explanation is necessary, use an abbreviation in the body of the table (e.g. ND) and explain clearly in footnotes what the abbreviation means. References to footnotes in a table are specified by superscript numbers, independently for each table. Superscript letters are used to designate statistical significance. Use a lower case p to indicate probability values (i.e. p<0.05). In general, use numerals, when two numbers appear adjacent to each other, spell out the first (i.e. three plants were selected rather than 3 plants were selected). In a series using some numbers less than 10 and some more than 10 use numerals for all (i.e. 2 splits, 6 plants were selected). Do not begin a sentence with a numeral. Spell it out or rearrange the sentence. Abbreviate the terms hour (h), minute (min) and second (sec) when used with a number in the text but spell them out when they are used alone. Do not use a hyphen to indicate inclusiveness (e.g. use 12 to 14 yr or wk 3 and 4 not 12-14 mg or wk 3-4). Use Arabic numerals with abbreviated units of measure: 2 g, 5 d, $4.00, 3% and numerical designations in the text: exp 1, group 3, etc. Figures (histogram/pie chart/ other type of charts) should be given in editable rich text material with the backup data file. The image of the figure or jpg/jpeg is not allowed.
The paper should always be written in third person form (Avoid I /We / Research Team / Project Team etc.).There is always a different style for paper writing and thesis writing, try to be precise enough without compromising the quality. Avoid too many paragraphs; one concept must be dealt at one place and time in one paragraph. Avoid presenting the same data in text, table, and figures in verbatim. Avoid making too many tables just for the number sake, also avoid giving socio personal profile till it is utmost necessary and has some bearing on the other part of the research (most times it is not so). The DISCUSSION should relate to the limitations or advantage of the author’s experiments in comparison with the work of others.
The ‘CONCLUSION’ section should not be of more than one paragraph after the discussion and explain in general terms the implications of findings of this research. Abbreviations, acronyms, or citations should not be used here.
REFERENCES lists should be typed in alphabetical order. The reference list should be first sorted alphabetically by author(s) and secondly chronologically. A recent issue of the journal should be consulted for the methods of citation of REFERENCES in the text as well as at the end of the article.
Reference section
Indian Journal of Extension Education (IJEE) follows common APA Style references and citation in text. For more information on references and reference examples, see Chapters 8, 9 and 10 of the Publication Manual as well as the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.). Also see the Reference Examples pages on the APA Style website. Few examples are of reference section as well as text citation are given below.
Including minimum of three references from previous issues of IJEE is desirable• There must be at least 15 references from the related researches. It is appreciable if the references are from Social Science/ Extension Education/ Communication/ Entrepreneurship/ Management/ Education related journals. The reference, in general, should not be older than 15 years and should be from published sources only. Avoid unpublished thesis (older than five years) references. Wherever possible provide the URL of the reference. Unauthenticated references will lead to rejection of article.
Indian Journal of Extension Education (IJEE) follows common APA Style references and citation in text. Journal name should never be abbreviated. For more information on references and reference examples, see Chapters 8, 9 and 10 of the Publication Manual as well as the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.). Also see the Reference Examples pages on the APA Style website. Few examples are of reference section as well as text citation are given below:
a) Journal Article
Lachner, A., Backfisch, I., Hoogerheide, V., van Gog, T., & Renkl, A. (2020). Timing matters! Explaining between study phases enhances students’ learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(4), 841–853.
b) Online Magazine Article
Gander, K. (2020, April 29). COVID-19 vaccine being developed in Australia raises antibodies to neutralize virus in pre-clinical tests. Newsweek.
c) Print Magazine Article
Nicholl, K. (2020, May). A royal spark. Vanity Fair, 62(5), 56–65, 100.
d) Online Newspaper Article
Roberts, S. (2020, April 9). Early string ties us to Neanderthals. The New York Times.
e) Print Newspaper Article
Reynolds, G. (2019, April 9). Different strokes for athletic hearts. The New York Times, D4.
f) Blog Post
Rutledge, P. (2019, March 11). The upside of social media. The Media Psychology Blog.
g) Authored Book
Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., & Pineau, T. R. (2018). Mindful sport performance enhancement: Mental training for athletes and coaches. American Psychological Association.
h) Edited Book Chapter )
Zeleke, W. A., Hughes, T. L., & Drozda, N. (2020). Home–school collaboration to promote mind–body health. In C. Maykel & M. A. Bray (Eds.), Promoting mind–body health in schools: Interventions for mental health professionals (pp. 11–26). American Psychological Association.
i) Online Dictionary Entry
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Internet addiction. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved April 24, 2020, from
j) Report by a Group Author
World Health Organization. (2014). Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition. eng.pdf?ua=1
k) Report by Individual Authors
Winthrop, R., Ziegler, L., Handa, R., & Fakoya, F. (2019). How playful learning can help leapfrog progress in education. Center for Universal Education at Brookings. uploads/2019/04/how_playful_learning_can_help_leapfrog_progress_in_education.pdf
l) Press Release
American Psychological Association. (2020, March 2). APA reaffirms psychologists’ role in combating climate change [Press release].
m) Conference Session
Davidson, R. J. (2019, August 8–11). Well-being is a skill [Conference session]. APA 2019 Convention, Chicago, IL, United States. Program_190708.pdf
n) Dissertation From a Database (Section 10.6)
Horvath-Plyman, M. (2018). Social media and the college student journey: An examination of how social media use impacts social capital and affects college choice, access, and transition (Publication No. 10937367) [Doctoral dissertation, New York University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
o) Preprint Article
Latimier, A., Peyre, H., & Ramus, F. (2020). A meta-analytic review of the benefit of spacing out retrieval practice episodes on retention. PsyArXiv.
p) Data Set
O’Donohue, W. (2017). Content analysis of undergraduate psychology textbooks (ICPSR 21600; Version V1) [Data set]. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research.
q) Film or Video
Doctor, P., & Del Carmen, R. (Directors). (2015). Inside out [Film]. Walt Disney Pictures; Pixar Animation Studios.
r) TV Series Episode
Dippold, K. (Writer), & Trim, M. (Director). (2011, April 14). Fancy party (Season 3, Episode 9) [TV series episode]. In G. Daniels, H. Klein, D. Miner, & M. Schur (Executive Producers), Parks and recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions; Fremulon; 3 Arts Entertainment; Universal Media Studios.
s) Webinar
Kamin, H. S., Lee, C. L., & McAdoo, T. L. (2020). Creating references using seventh edition APA Style [Webinar]. American Psychological Association.
t) YouTube Video
Above The Noise. (2017, October 18). Can procrastination be a good thing? [Video]. YouTube.
u) Song or Track
Nirvana. (1991). Smells like teen spirit [Song]. On Nevermind. DGC.
v) Radio Broadcast
Hersher, R. (2020, March 19). Spring starts today all over America, which is weird [Radio broadcast]. NPR. america-which-is-weird3
Podcast Episode (Section 10.13)
Santos, L. (Host). (n.d.). Psychopaths and superheroes (No. 1) [Audio podcast episode]. In The happiness lab with Dr. Laurie Santos. Pushkin Industries. episode-1
Infographic (Section 10.14)
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Data sharing [Infographic]. data-sharing-infographic.pdf
PowerPoint From a Classroom Website (Section 10.14)
Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas@FNU.
Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. (2020, April 7). It’s World Health Day, and we owe a profound debt of gratitude to all our medical professionals. They’re still giving [Tweet]. Twitter. BarackObama/status/1247555328365023238
Open Educational Resource
Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain. OER Commons. Retrieved January 7, 2020, from
Chandler, N. (2020, April 9). What’s the difference between Sasquatch and Bigfoot? howstuffworks.
Webpage on a News Website
Machado, J., & Turner, K. (2020, March 7). The future of feminism. Vox. identities/2020/3/7/21163193/international-womens-day-2020
Webpage With a Retrieval Date
Center for Systems Science and Engineering. (2020, May 6). COVID-19 dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). Johns Hopkins University & Medicine, Coronavirus Resource Center. Retrieved May 6, 2020, from
Citations in text
Groups of references cited in a sentence in the text must be listed in chronological order.
In-text, citations have two formats: parenthetical and narrative.
In parenthetical citations, the author name and publication date appear in parentheses. Both the author and the date, separated by a comma, appear in parentheses for a parenthetical citation. A parenthetical citation can appear within or at the end of a sentence. For example
Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public’s perception of expert consensus on an issue (Koehler, 2016).
In narrative citations, the author name is incorporated into the text as part of the sentence and the year follows in parentheses. The author’s surname appears in running text, and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author’s name for a narrative citation. For example:
Koehler (2016) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage.
In rare cases, the author and date might both appear in the narrative. In this case, do not use parentheses. For example
In 2016, Koehler noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage.
Each work cited must appear in the reference list, and each work in the reference list must be cited in the text (or in a table, figure, footnote, or appendix).
Both paraphrases and quotations require citations.
A paraphrase restates another’s idea (or your own previously published idea) in your own words. Paraphrasing allows you to summarize and synthesize information from one or more sources, focus on significant information, and compare and contrast relevant details.
Authors paraphrase their sources most of the time, rather than directly quoting the sources; When you paraphrase, cite the original work using either the narrative or parenthetical citation format. Although it is not required to provide a page or paragraph number in the citation, you may include one (in addition to the author and year) when it would help interested readers locate the relevant passage within a long or complex work (e.g., a book).
Webster-Stratton (2016) described a case example of a 4-year-old girl who showed an insecure attachment to her mother; in working with the family dyad, the therapist focused on increasing the mother’s empathy for her child (pp. 152–153).
A direct quotation reproduces words verbatim from another work or from your own previously published work. It is best to paraphrase sources rather than directly quoting them because paraphrasing allows you to fit material to the context of your paper and writing style. Use direct quotations rather than paraphrasing in case reproducing an exact definition, an author has said something memorably or succinctly, or when you want to respond to exact wording (e.g., something someone said).
For quotations of fewer than 40 words, add quotation marks around the words and incorporate the quote into your own text—there is no additional formatting needed. Do not insert an ellipsis at the beginning and/or end of a quotation unless the original source includes an ellipsis.
Effective teams can be difficult to describe because “high performance along one domain does not translate to high performance along another” (Ervin et al., 2018, p. 470).
For a direct quotation, always include a full citation (parenthetical or narrative) in the same sentence as the quotation, including the page number (or other location information, e.g., paragraph number). Place a parenthetical citation either immediately after the quotation or at the end of the sentence. For a narrative citation, include the author and year in the sentence and then place the page number or other location information in parentheses after the quotation.
If the quotation precedes the narrative citation, put the page number or location information after the year and a comma. If the citation appears at the end of a sentence, put the end punctuation after the closing parenthesis for the citation.
• Place periods and commas within closing single or double quotation marks. Place other punctuation marks inside quotation marks only when they are part of the quoted material.
Format quotations of 40 words or more as block quotations:
• Do not use quotation marks to enclose a block quotation. Start a block quotation on a new line and indent the whole block 0.5 in. from the left margin. Double-space the entire block quotation. Do not add extra space before or after it. If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each subsequent paragraph an additional 0.5 in.
• Either cite the source in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation or cite the author and year in the narrative before the quotation and place only the page number in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation.
• Do not add a period after the closing parenthesis in either case.
Block quotation with parenthetical citation:
Researchers have studied how people talk to themselves:
Inner speech is a paradoxical phenomenon. It is an experience that is central to many people’s everyday lives, and yet it presents considerable challenges to any effort to study it scientifically. Nevertheless, a wide range of methodologies and approaches have combined to shed light on the subjective experience of inner speech and its cognitive and neural underpinnings. (Alderson-Day & Fernyhough, 2015, p. 957)

Block quotation with narrative citation:
Flores et al. (2018) described how they addressed potential researcher bias when working with an intersectional community of transgender people of color:
Everyone on the research team belonged to a stigmatized group but also held privileged identities. Throughout the research process, we attended to the ways in which our privileged and oppressed identities may have influenced the research process, findings, and presentation of results. (p. 311)

The following are general guidelines to follow when writing in-text citations:
• Ensure that the spelling of author names and the publication dates in reference list entries match those in the corresponding in-text citations.
• Cite only works that you have read and ideas that you have incorporated into your writing. The works you cite may provide key background information, support or dispute your thesis, or offer critical definitions and data.
• Readers may find a long string of citations difficult to understand, especially if they are using assistive technology such as a screen reader; therefore, include only those citations needed to support your immediate point.
• Cite primary sources when possible, and cite secondary sources sparingly.
• Cite sources to document all facts and figures that you mention that are not common knowledge.
• To cite a specific part of a source, provide an author–date citation for the work plus information about the specific part.
• Even when sources cannot be retrieved (e.g., because they are personal communications), still credit them in the text (however, avoid using online sources that are no longer recoverable).
Layout Formats
Use Times New Roman font of size 12 point. The paragraph must be justified and separated from one another with a single space. Line spacing must be ‘Double’.
Page layout: Format your article so that it can be printed on A4 size paper with a provision of left right and top margin of 2.5 cm. The bottom margin must be 4 cm.
Major heading: All major heading (ABSTRACT, KEYWORDS, INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND REFERENCES) should be in upper case or capital letters (14 point bold) ‘centre aligned’.
Sub-headings: Use font size of 12 point bold. To be typed on a separate line and ‘left aligned’ first letter of the first word to be in upper case (capital letter) and all other letters in lower case (small letter) e.g. Socio-economic and psychological characteristics.
Sub-sub headings: Use font size of 10 point bold, in italics and ‘left aligned’. To be typed in a separate line with use with left margin. The first letter of first word to be in upper case (capital letter) and all other letters in lower case (small letters)
Table formats: Tables have to be placed in the appropriate place in the text. They should be prepared using the Table facility of Microsoft Word. Tables must have a Table caption on the top of the Table. The first letter of the first word of the caption should be in upper case (capital letters) and all other letters in lower case (small letters). A research paper should not have more than seven Tables.
Graphic formats: Only computer generated charts of figures (as a part of Microsoft word or GIF of JPEG files) or photographs relevant to the contents of the paper will be accepted.
Acronomys: You have to spell out the acronym for its first occurrence followed by the acronym within parenthesis. Example: Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) or Training and visit (T & V).
Plagiarism: Authors must obtain permission to reproduce any copyright material, and include an acknowledgement of the source in their article. They should be aware that the unreferenced use of the published and unpublished ideas, writing or illustrations of others, or submission of a complete paper under a new authorship in a different or the same language, is plagiarism.
Other policies: Articles forwarded to the editor for publication are understood to be offered to the Indian Journal of Extension Education exclusively and the copyrights automatically stand transferred to Indian Society of Extension Education. It is also understood that the authors have obtained the approval of their department, faculty or institute in cases where such permission is necessary. The Editorial Board takes no responsibility for facts or opinions expressed in the Journal, which rests entirely with the authors thereof. Proof-correction should be in Track Change mode. All queries marked in the article should be answered. Proofs are supplied for a check-up of the correctness of type setting and facts. The proofs should be returned within 3 days. The alternation in authors name is not permitted at any later stage after the article is submitted to the Indian Journal of Extension Education.
Article certificate: The article certificate duly signed by all the authors should be mailed in original to Chief Editor ISEE. In absence of article certificate it will not be published.

Reviewer Guidelines
The number of scientific articles published each year continues to grow, hence the peer-review process, together with the merit of the editorial board, is cited as the primary influence on a journal’s reputation, impact factor, and standing in the field. Reviewers do this difficult job without honorarium as they are good citizens of scientific community. The Indian Journal of Extension Education relies on expert and objective review by knowledgeable researchers to ensure the quality of the papers it publishes.

  • The refereeing system
    i. A referee’s duties are to assist the editor in maintaining the quality of the papers appearing in his journal and to help the authors by constructive criticism of their efforts.
    ii. Referees are selected in recognition of authoritative scientific work in the fields covered by Indian Journal of Extension Education.
    iii. Each paper submitted for Indian Journal of Extension Education is reviewed by two independent referees. If their reports disagree with regard to the suitability of the paper for publication, advice of a third referee is sought.
    iv. Referees are expected to respond to the editor’s request for advice within a limited period of time. Its length (7 days) is clearly stated by the editor. If a referee finds himself unable to attend to a manuscript within this period, he is asked to return the script immediately without comments in order to allow the editor to select another referee without further delay.
    v. A referee’s report is meant to guide the editor, who usually transmits it to the author in order to help him improve his paper or understand the reasons for rejection.
    vi. Although the editor in most cases transmits the comments of a referee verbatim to the author, yet he ensures that the referee remains anonymous.
    vii. Although the refereeing system helps to maintain and improve the quality of a journal, there are certain pitfalls, which an editor is always aware hence never uses the referees’ comments blindly.
    viii. Authors are asked to follow the suggestions made by the referees, or otherwise state to the editor their reasons for not doing so.
  • Identifying and selecting appropriate reviewers
    i. Editor strives to establish and maintain a database of suitably qualified peer reviewers. The qualities of a good reviewer are:
    a. Expertise in one or more areas of paper
    b. Objectivity
    c. No conflicts of interest
    d. Good judgment
    e. Able to think clearly and logically
    f. Able to write a good critique
    g. Accurate
    h. Readable
    i. Helpful to editors and authors
    j. Reliable in returning reviews
    k. Able to do the review in the allotted time-frame
    ii. A database of suitably qualified peer reviewers has been established and being maintained.
    iii. Editor objectively monitors the performance of peer reviewers and records the quality and timeliness of their reviews. Peer reviewers who repeatedly produce poor quality, tardy, abusive or unconstructive reviews are not used again.
    iv. Editor encourages peer reviewers to identify if they have a conflict of interest with the material they are being asked to review, and asks that peer reviewers decline invitations requesting peer review where any circumstances might prevent them producing fair peer review.
    v. If authors request that an individual (or individuals) does not peer review their paper objectively, editors uses this information while selecting the peer reviewer.
    vi. Editor may choose to use peer reviewers suggested by authors, but authors’ suggestions are not binding.
    vii. Editor requests the peer reviewers who delegate peer review to members of their staff to inform the editor when this occurs.
  • Fair peer-review process is aimed to minimize bias.
    i. The peer-review system that best suits this cross-discipline journal has been selected.
    ii. Peer review system is blinded and multiple reviewers. Research articles and review articles are always peer reviewed.
    iii. Consistent standards are applied in peer-review processes.
    iv. If discussions between an author, editor, and peer reviewer have taken place in confidence it remains in confidence unless explicit consent has been given by all parties or there are exceptional circumstances (for example, when they might help substantiate claims of intellectual property theft during peer review ).
    v. Editors or board members are never involved in editorial decisions about their own work. Journal does not accept original research papers and reviews from editors or employees of the journal.
    vi. Journal editors, members of editorial boards and other editorial staff are requested to withdraw from discussions about submissions where any circumstances might prevent them offering unbiased editorial decisions.
  • Authors have a right to appeal editorial decisions.
    i. Authors may appeal peer review decisions.
    ii. Editor mediates all exchanges between authors and peer reviewers during the peer-review process (i.e. prior to publication).
    iii. If agreement cannot be reached, editor invites comments from additional peer reviewer(s).
    iv. The editor’s decision in consultation with the editorial board chairman/member (subject matter specialist) following such an appeal is final.
  • Editorial independence
    Editorial independence is respected. Decision by editors about whether to publish individual items submitted to a journal is final.
    Checklists for reviewers
    • The reviewer must consider the scientific focus, readership, standards and policies of the journal as he/she reviews the paper. The journal needs the scientific expertise, not the editorial assistance. Journal relies on its reviewers to evaluate the quality, importance, and novelty of the science presented in the manuscript.
    • Reviewers’ comments that focus completely on minor editorial problems (typographical errors, misspellings) and do not comment on the science in the paper, have limited value as they do not advise the editor on the importance and validity of the science and do not help the editor to make an informed decision concerning publication.
    • Reviewer is the representative of the journal, and not the friend of the author. The reviewer must remember that it is unethical to allow a badly flawed paper to pass unchallenged into the peer reviewed literature, where it will be a trap to the unsophisticated reader who will read the manuscript (or perhaps only the abstract) superficially and will simply accept the flawed conclusions at face value. The peer review process is viewed by scientists and the public as providing a scientific stamp of approval to the paper and its contents. The reviewer therefore has an ethical obligation to support work of high quality while appropriately challenging flawed papers.
    • Following questions should be taken into account while reviewing articles for Indian Journal of Extension Education.
    • Is the work important and novel?
    • Does the title reflect the content appropriately?
    • Does the abstract describe the content accurately?
    • Are the objectives clearly stated?
    • Are materials, methods and experimental model systems appropriate?
    • Check the rigor of the experimental design (including the inclusion of appropriate controls).
    • Check the quality of the data.
    • Check the appropriateness of the statistical analyses.
    • Is the argument expressed clearly, strongly and convincingly?
    • Is the article well structured?
    • Are there any irrelevant sections?
    • Is the field adequately covered? Are there any relevant areas that should have been included?
    • Is the article well-supported with bibliographic and other authoritative sources?
    • Is the information, or the interpretation of the information, new?
    • Is the interpretation of result made on scientific reasoning?
    • Are conclusions drawn in the paper validity?
    • Is the information factually correct?
    • Are the conclusions supported by the discussion?
    • Are the supporting illustrations/graphs/other media well chosen?
    • Do they add impact to the article? Does the article contribute significantly to knowledge and/or understanding of wells as living springs, foci of the community etc as discussed in the Indian Journal of Extension Education?
    • The reviewer should also comment on
    • The length of the paper
    • The writing quality
    • The clarity, accuracy, and completeness of the figures and tables
    • The accuracy and adequacy of the introduction which frames the area of the research, of the discussions of prior and related work, and of the citations to the literature.
    • Some editorial comments are appropriate
    • should identify sentences or paragraphs where the wording is sufficiently erroneous or ambiguous that the science is unclear.
    • should also point out language errors that result in scientific misstatements.
    • should point out errors in referencing.
    • A note that a manuscript requires major editorial assistance or a warning that a manuscript is so carelessly prepared that the science cannot be rigorously reviewed is always very important.
    • Reviewers should not waste inordinate amounts of time correcting minor problems with spelling, grammar, or punctuation; instead suggest to correct them.
    Writing the comments
    • These must be clear, concise, and accurate.
    • Although their primary purpose is to advise the editor, comments to the author frequently are of value in guiding revision of the paper for the same or a different journal and in suggesting ways to improve the project by the inclusion of additional data or experiments.
    • Comments to the author may be very brief, especially in the case of an excellent, well prepared paper.
    • They may be extensive if the reviewer feels the paper has valuable elements but requires extensive revisions to present the findings effectively.
    • Comments and recommendations should be clear and should be supported with citations to specific areas in the text of the paper.
    • When the reviewer’s criticisms rely on or are supported by data in the literature, the reviewer should provide citations to the relevant papers.
    • A good review should help the authors to think more clearly about their work and its design, execution, presentation, and significance.
    • Some reviewers submit critiques that are so rude, snide, sarcastic, argumentative, or even obscene that they must be censored before being sent to the authors.
    • Some are not transmitted, depriving the author of any beneficial insights the reviewer might have had.
    • Rudeness, personal criticism and locker room humor are never appropriate.
    • Even the most serious scientific criticisms can be worded and presented in such a way as to be constructive and collegial.
    • Reviewers should write critiques using a style and tone that they would want to see in the reviews that they or their trainees receive.
    • Reviewers should remember that they are setting the standards of behavior and collegiality for their field, as well as the standards of science.
    • The reviewer should always work to provide reviews that meet high standards of ethics as well as high standards of science.
    Sanctity of Manuscript — Points to remember
    • Manuscripts under review are confidential documents.
    • These are unpublished data and ideas, which must be kept confidential.
    • Reviewer cannot share the paper or its contents with his colleagues.
    • Manuscript should be kept in a secure place, where it is not readily accessible to the curious or unscrupulous. Reviewer cannot use the information in the paper in his own research or cite it in his publications. This can raise serious ethical issues if the work is used to benefit reviwer’s research.
    • The outcome and content of the review as well as the paper are confidential.
    • Lapses in the confidentiality undermine the review process, betray the trust of the authors and the editors, and can create serious problems for everyone involved in the review process.
    • Can the paper be passed on to someone else to review? For permission, the editor should be contacted in advance.
    • The reviewer initially contacted should always let the editor know that the manuscript has been given to another reviewer because it is:
    a. Important for the records of the journal
    b. The information may be required to configure web portal for the new reviewer
    c. Actual reviewer receives credit for his/her efforts
    d. Adds the new reviewers to the journal’s database, facilitating future invitations to review papers
    e. Increases reviewers’ visibility – journal lists and thanks reviewers in journal
    Reviewer should avoid
    • misrepresenting facts in a review,
    • unreasonably delaying the review process,
    • unfairly criticizing a competitor’s work,
    • breaching the confidentiality of the review.
    • proposing changes that appear to support the reviewer’s own work or hypotheses.
    • making use of confidential information to achieve personal or professional gain.
    • using ideas or text from a manuscript under review.
    • including personal criticism of the author(s). failing to disclose a conflict of interest that would have excluded the reviewer from the process.
    Review form
    • The review form complete in all respect is expected to be uploaded along with reviewed manuscript in tack change mode.

The Indian Journal of Extension Education relies on expert and objective review by knowledgeable researchers to ensure the quality of the papers it publishes.