Indian Journal of Applied Basic Medical Sciences
Year: 2021, Volume: 23(B), Issue. (2)
First page: (75) Last page: (85)
Online ISSN: 2249-7935
Print ISSN: 0975-8917
doi: 10.48165/ijabms.2021.233706 

Comparative Evaluation Of Intrathecal Fentanyl And  Midazolam As An Adjuvant With Hyperbaric  Bupivacaine In Caesarean Section
Dr. Sejal R. Parmar1, Dr. Rupal B. Shah2*, Dr. Kinjal B. Patel3,Dhwani V. Soni4,Helly S. Mehta5
1Senior Resident GCS medical college and hospital
2Associate professor, AMC MET Medical College, L.G. Hospital
33rd Year Resident, AMC MET Medical College, L.G. Hospital
42nd Year Resident, AMC MET Medical College, L.G. Hospital
51st Year Resident, AMC MET Medical College, L.G. Hospital
Corresponding Author: Dr. Rupal B. Shah, Email:

Online Published on 25-August-2021

How to cite the Article

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is images.png
View on Google Scholar


Background  The study was done to compare and evaluate the effects of intrathecal fentanyl and midazolam as an adjuvant with hyperbaric bupivacaine. Material and Methods This study was conducted on 90 adult female patients aged 18-35 years and ASA grade I/II  undergoing elective or emergency caesarean section. The patients were randomly divided into  three groups having 30 patients in each group. Group A received 1.5ml 0.5% Bupivacaine plus  0.5ml NS, Group B received 1.5ml 0.5% Bupivacaine with 0.5ml (25 mcg) Fentanyl, Group C  received 1.5ml 0.5% Bupivacaine with 0.5ml (2.5 mg) Midazolam. Results  There was no significant difference in the demographic data and surgical characteristics in the  three groups. Regression to sensory level S2 was significantly prolonged in Group B  (257.87±11.95 min) and Group C(252.87±8.66min) as compared to Group A(151.80±8.0min).  However, the duration of motor blockade was comparable between Group A, Group B and  Group C (P value>0.05). Duration of complete and effective analgesia was significantly  prolonged in the Group B and Group C as compared to Group A (p<0.0001).  Conclusion Present study demonstrated that addition of fentanyl (25μg) and Midazolam (2.5 mg) to low dose bupivacaine (7.5 mg) intrathecally in patients undergoing caesarean section improves the quality of anaesthesia and post-operative analgesia  with hemodynamic stability and without compromising neonatal outcome.


Intrathecal Fentanyl, Midazolam, Hyperbaric Bupivacaine,  Caesarean